Sign In
App icon


Available Now!
Get the App
Click Here to Continue Browser Session   ❯


Getting Back-to-Basics

Empowering the Workforce

The Department of Defense (DoD) is modernizing its implementation of the Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act (DAWIA) to a 21st Century talent management framework.

Learn more  
cartoon of six excited people standing in a row

Learn from examples of real-world acquisition programs

The DAU Powerful Examples program showcases real-world acquisition stories of best practices and lessons learned. These stories highlight a success or other outcome that may be useful to your organization or program.

Learn more  

Build skills with a Defense Acquisition Credential

Learn more about specific topics in acquisition such as agile and program protection with a Defense Acquisition Credential. Our credentials program allows you to select smaller job-focused training so you can grow and deepen your skills.

Learn more  



Using Your Library Cardstring;#/News/Using-Your-Library-CardUsing Your Library Card2021-12-01T17:00:00Z,<div class="ExternalClass778770FABEFA4FEE8A248E866BB791CA"><p>DAU’s Virtual Research Library (VRL) and Acker Archives are available for all members of the Defense Acquisition Workforce.</p> <p>“We’re more than just books,” DAU Reference Librarian and Archivist Sarah Montgomery said.</p> <p>The VRL provides a variety of virtual tools that can assist in research or the creation of learning assets. The acquisition workforce can access numerous electronic subscriptions through the VRL, ranging from daily news like the AP News Archive to issue specific publications, such as the Harvard Business Publishing Collection. A Common Access Card is required to access the VRL and these digital sources.</p> <p>These external sources are augmented by acquisition specific tools, such as the <a href="" target="_blank">VRL Major Defense Acquisition Program (MDAPs) List</a>. This list includes write ups about all DoD MDAPs, organized by portfolio and Service. The VRL also makes case studies available, including providing a template for the workforce to provide additional case studies to add to the library’s collection. The VRL has provided support for mission assistance teams, Operation Warp Speed, other DoD organizations.</p> <h3><strong>Common Library Resources</strong></h3> <p>The VRL curates <a href="" target="_blank">two major news centers</a>, including one with a focus on acquisition programs and news specificly for the Defense Acquisition Workforce.</p> <p>“[The Situational Awareness (SA) News Center] captures the most relevant news with respect to program acquisition,” Montgomery said.</p> <p>The SA News Center includes a tab called “Hot Topics – China” where users can find daily news related to China’s military, technology, cybersecurity, and more. The second is the Cyber Awareness News Center that provides targeted, daily news regarding cybersecurity.</p> <p>The DAU VRL also curates a separate China awareness reading list, which captures substantive reports, books, articles, videos, etc. for acquisition professionals who want to dig deep and get smart on <a href="" target="_blank">China</a>.</p> <p>In addition, the library has ebooks and additional professional development databases. The VRL librarians maintain the Current Research Resources, a compilation of academic studies and articles on topics ranging from blockchain to Mid-tier Acquisition that are used by DAU professors and students, but can also be of use to the workforce.</p> <p>“You can search these databases yourselves,” Montgomery said. “Our reference librarians can assist with research by pulling articles or providing an overview brief to you or your team about what the library can do for you.”</p> <p>“Libraries equal virtual databases,” DAU Reference Librarian Katherine Multop said. “DAU has access to these resources, so come use them.” Using DAU access can save members of the workforce on subscriptions to publications such as the <em>Washington Post</em> or <em>Wall Street Journal</em>. See below for a sampling of publications available.</p> <p>The VRL is standing by to provide support. Visit the <a href="" target="_blank">VRL and Acker Archives</a> by clicking here or contact the VRL team at <a href="" target="_blank"></a>.</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td style="background-color:#EEEEEE;padding:10px 20px;"> <p>Some of the most used publications are listed below; those who can access to the VRL will be able to review a variety of subscription materials.<br> To see the full list, click <a href="" target="_blank">here</a>.</p> <ul> <li>Business Week</li> <li>Chronicle of Higher Education</li> <li>The Economist</li> <li>Financial Times</li> <li>National Defense Acquisition University Signal</li> <li>New York Times</li> <li>Procurement Lawyer</li> <li>Public Contract Law</li> <li>Wall Street Journal</li> <li>Washington Post</li> </ul> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table></div>string;#/News/Using-Your-Library-Card
December 2021 DAU eNewsletter Now Availablestring;#/News/December-2021-DAU-eNewsletter-Now-AvailableDecember 2021 DAU eNewsletter Now Available2021-12-01T17:00:00Z,<div class="ExternalClass0584AA0A850D429180A3E021F814B2AE"><table bgcolor="#ffffff" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" height="100%" style="border-collapse:collapse;" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <table align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="email-container" width="600"> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="2" style="padding:10px 20px;font-family:sans-serif;font-size:15px;color:#555555;background-color:#F7F7F7;"> <p><strong>December 2021 DAU eNewsletter</strong></p> <p>In this issue, you’ll find articles on DAU’s efforts to respond to the national security threat posed by China, DAWIA certification and training, our Virtual Research Library resource and more.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td style="padding:20px 10px;"><a href="/" style="text-decoration:none;"><img alt="DAU December 2021 eNewsletter" border="0" height="51" src="/about/Documents/eNewsletter/2021/Dec/DAUlogo_noDate.png" style="float:left;" width="201" /></a></td> <td align="right" style="font-family:Arial, 'sans-serif';font-weight:bold;font-size:130%;color:#000;padding-right:20px;">DECEMBER 2021</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="email-container" width="600"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="full-width-image"><img align="center" alt="China map" border="0" src="/about/Documents/eNewsletter/2021/Dec/OutpacingChina_v4.png" style="width:100%;max-width:600px;height:auto;" width="600" /></td> </tr> <tr> <td style="padding:40px;text-align:justify;font-family:sans-serif;font-size:15px;line-height:20px;color:#555555;"> <p><a href="" style="font-size:120%;"><strong>Helping Win the Great Power Competition</strong></a></p> <p>The National Defense Strategy identified increased influence by China as a major threat to national and global security. In response, DAU partnered with other Defense organizations, Industry and academia to help the US stay in front of China's rapidly growing military and technological capabilities.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <div class="img" style="font-size:0pt;line-height:0pt;text-align:center;"><img alt="" border="0" height="13" src="" width="600" /></div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="email-container" width="600"> <tbody> <tr> <td align="center" style="padding:10px;" valign="top"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="stack-column-center" valign="top"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="padding:10px;text-align:center;"><img alt="New credentials infographic" border="0" class="fluid" height="270" src="/about/Documents/eNewsletter/2021/Dec/credential.jpg" width="270" /></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="center-on-narrow" style="font-family:sans-serif;font-size:15px;line-height:20px;color:#555555;padding:0 10px 10px;text-align:left;"> <p><a href="" style="font-size:120%;"><strong>DAWIA Certification</strong></a></p> <p>The deadline to apply for any level of DAWIA certification under the current requirements is January 31, 2022. Modernized DAWIA certification requirements take effect<br> February 1, 2022.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> <td class="stack-column-center" valign="top"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="padding:10px;text-align:center;"><img alt="DAU iCatalog logo" border="0" class="fluid" height="270" src="/about/Documents/eNewsletter/2021/Dec/iCatalogHome.png" width="270" /></td> </tr> <tr> <td class="center-on-narrow" style="font-family:sans-serif;font-size:15px;line-height:20px;color:#555555;padding:0 10px 10px;text-align:left;"> <p><a href="" style="font-size:120%;"><strong>New LCL Credential</strong></a></p> <p>Defense Acquisition Credentials offer specialized training and additional CLPs. We recently released a new Life Cycle Logistics credential, which can be fulfilled by completing two DAU courses. Learn more in our <a href="">iCatalog</a>.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="email-container" width="600"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <div class="img" style="font-size:0pt;line-height:0pt;text-align:center;"><img alt="" border="0" height="13" src="" width="600" /></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" dir="ltr" style="padding:10px;" valign="top" width="100%"> <table align="center" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="stack-column-center" width="33.33%"> <table align="center" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td dir="ltr" style="padding:0 10px;" valign="top"><img alt="DoD seal with bust" border="0" class="center-on-narrow" height="172" src="/about/Documents/eNewsletter/2021/Dec/DoD_Award.jpg" width="172" /></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> <td class="stack-column-center" width="80%"> <table align="center" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="center-on-narrow" dir="ltr" style="font-family:sans-serif;font-size:15px;line-height:20px;color:#555555;padding:10px;text-align:left;" valign="top"> <p><a href=""><strong>Congratulations to Defense Acquisition Workforce Award Winners</strong></a></p> <p>Congratulations to the 2021 Defense Acquisition Award winners! The five annual awards, representing 24 separate categories, recognize individual and team accomplishments that support the Secretary of Defense's priorities through excellence in acquisition.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="email-container" width="600"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <div class="img" style="font-size:0pt;line-height:0pt;text-align:center;"><img alt="" border="0" height="13" src="" width="600" /></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" dir="rtl" style="padding:10px;" valign="top" width="100%"> <table align="center" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="stack-column-center" width="33.33%"> <table align="center" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td dir="ltr" style="padding:0 10px;" valign="top"><img alt="Virtual library icon" border="0" class="center-on-narrow" height="172" src="/about/Documents/eNewsletter/2021/Dec/VirLib.png" width="172" /></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> <td class="stack-column-center" width="80%"> <table align="center" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="center-on-narrow" dir="ltr" style="font-family:sans-serif;font-size:15px;line-height:20px;color:#555555;padding:10px;text-align:left;" valign="top"> <p><a href=""><strong>Using Your Library Card</strong></a></p> <p>DAU's Virtual Research Library provides the acquisition workforce with numerous resources;<br> learn more about the Library's resources and how to access them.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" class="email-container" width="600"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <div class="img" style="font-size:0pt;line-height:0pt;text-align:center;"><a href=""><img alt="" border="0" height="13" src="" width="600" /></a></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" dir="ltr" style="padding:10px;" valign="top" width="100%"> <table align="center" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="stack-column-center" width="33.33%"> <table align="center" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td dir="ltr" style="padding:0 10px;" valign="top"><img alt="Naval X logo" border="0" class="center-on-narrow" height="172" src="/about/Documents/eNewsletter/2021/Dec/NavalX_IMG_4656.jpg" width="172" /></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> <td class="stack-column-center" width="80%"> <table align="center" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="center-on-narrow" dir="ltr" style="font-family:sans-serif;font-size:15px;line-height:20px;color:#555555;padding:10px;text-align:left;" valign="top"> <p><a href=""><strong>NavalX: Ask DAU Anything</strong></a></p> <p>NavalX recently hosted a panel of DAU faculty and staff about ongoing initiatives that are modernizing DAU and DAWIA certification training. Read a quick synopsis or watch the 1-hour panel to gain a better understanding how we are responding to your needs and what you can expect from us in the future.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <div class="img" style="font-size:0pt;line-height:0pt;text-align:center;"><img alt="" border="0" height="13" src="" width="600" /></div> <table align="center" class="email-container" width="600"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="padding:40px 10px;width:100%;font-size:12px;font-family:sans-serif;line-height:18px;text-align:center;color:#888882;">DAU<br> <span class="mobile-link--footer">9820 Belvoir Road<br> Fort Belvoir, VA, 22060</span> <table align="center" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="margin-top:20px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td class="img" style="font-size:0pt;line-height:0pt;text-align:left;"><a href="" target="_blank"><img alt="" border="0" height="43" src="/about/Documents/December%202019%20eNewsletter/LI_Logo.png" width="43" /></a></td> <td class="img" style="font-size:0pt;line-height:0pt;text-align:left;" width="7"> </td> <td class="img" style="font-size:0pt;line-height:0pt;text-align:left;"><a href="" target="_blank"><img alt="" border="0" height="43" src="/about/Documents/December%202019%20eNewsletter/FB_Logo.png" width="43" /></a></td> <td class="img" style="font-size:0pt;line-height:0pt;text-align:left;" width="7"> </td> <td class="img" style="font-size:0pt;line-height:0pt;text-align:left;"><a href="" target="_blank"><img alt="" border="0" height="43" src="/about/Documents/December%202019%20eNewsletter/TW_Logo.png" width="43" /></a></td> <td class="img" style="font-size:0pt;line-height:0pt;text-align:left;" width="7"> </td> <td class="img" style="font-size:0pt;line-height:0pt;text-align:left;"><a href="" target="_blank"><img alt="" border="0" height="43" src="/about/Documents/December%202019%20eNewsletter/IG_Logo.png" width="43" /></a></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table></div>string;#/News/December-2021-DAU-eNewsletter-Now-Available



Test and Evaluation - Where the Rubber Meets the Road in Digital Engineering and Evaluation - Where the Rubber Meets the Road in Digital Engineering2021-12-15T17:00:00Z,<div class="ExternalClassA0A3E88D0FFF47B799A4936AFE37B7EA">“Accelerate change, or lose” is an imperative for the Department of Defense (DoD) if we expect to counter our competitors’ rapid development pipelines. Accelerating change isn’t about a change in mindset—after all, we’ve been trying to go faster for decades—it’s about the need for a true transformation in the way DoD buys things.<br> <br> The key to delivering capabilities at the speed of relevance for our future force is the use of integrated digital ecosystems to design, test, and modernize systems. The elements of this integrated digital ecosystem—the “digital trinity” of digital engineering, agile software, and open systems architecture—are spelled out by Dr. Will Roper, former Air Force Assistant Secretary for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, in Bending the Spoon: Guidebook for Digital Engineering and e-Series (inspired by the film The Matrix. See guidebook <a href="" target="_blank">here</a>). Although there is a role for test and evaluation (T&E) in all three legs of the digital trinity, our largest impact is on digital engineering, where we are a provider of data used to validate and update system models and simulations.<br> <br> Digital engineering is about more than just digitizing traditional test processes and products such as test plans and reports. Instead, digital engineering requires us to think digitally from the beginning of a program: How does the test community contribute to developing and maintaining a system’s “digital twin”? This is a fundamentally different problem than the traditional T&E question of “How well does this system work?” Digital engineering requires the T&E community to shift our mindset from providing data that supports decision making at discrete intervals to a mindset of providing a knowledge base as an authoritative source of truth (ASOT). The ASOT validates and updates the digital twin in a continuous evaluation process throughout the life cycle of a system.<br> <br> Let us demonstrate how this paradigm shift in T&E can work. We first set the stage by briefly discussing what digital engineering is trying to achieve within the larger acquisition process. We then articulate the T&E community’s role in that process through continuous evaluation, uncertainty reduction, and rapid feedback. Finally, we describe current Air Force Test Center (AFTC) efforts to embrace digital engineering. <h2>A Quick Introduction to Digital Engineering</h2> The vision of digital engineering is the digital twin: models, simulations, and digital environments so good that they accurately replicate complex systems before anything is physically built. The comprehensive virtual environment just described will allow designers to massively iterate all aspects of a system’s life cycle without the shackles of real-world issues such as runtime, risk, and cost. To implement this vision, the Air Force has fully embraced the five goals in <a href="" target="_blank">DoD’s Digital Engineering Strategy</a>: <ol> <li>Formalize the development, integration and use of models.</li> <li>Provide an authoritative source of truth.</li> <li>Incorporate technological innovation.</li> <li>Establish infrastructure and environments.</li> <li>Transform the culture/workforce.</li> </ol> The Air Force guide There is No Spoon: The New Digital Acquisition Reality explains that digital acquisition is about more than just building better systems; it’s about building systems better and allowing the acquisition community to design faster, enable seamless assembly, test more efficiently and effectively, and provide easier upgrades to maintain our competitive edge. But how will we decide when a model becomes so realistic that we accept it as a complete substitute for reality? The answer: when you have real-world data that anchors your models; otherwise, you have nothing but a fancy video game. And that real-world data comes from T&E, whether conducted in a pristine laboratory setting or on a complex open air range (OAR).<br> <br> Formula 1 (F1) racing provides a good example of digital engineering. In his January 2021 Popular Mechanics article “Exclusive: The Air Force’s Secret New Fighter Jet Uses F1-Syle Engineering,” Dr. Roper wrote, “[In F1 racing] there are no physical prototypes today. Every car feature and all physics governing it—even the rubber literally meeting the road—is painstakingly virtualized and anchored by authoritative test data (emphasis added).” But even without prototypes, F1 designers still collect plenty of physical data—they just do it on the real race car after it hits the track (or in wind tunnels akin to those the AFTC operates at the Arnold Engineering Development Complex). And the data collected on the real car is fed forward into real-time tweaks of the existing car and improvements for the next model. For military applications, the operating environment is much more complex and changes more rapidly than an F1 racetrack, but the same principles of continuous and rapid improvement apply, as long as the digital twin and its environment are grounded in real-world data. <h2>Digital Engineering/Role of T&E</h2> As a provider of the authoritative source of truth, T&E is at the center of digital engineering. The knowledge gained through T&E is critical for the continuous evaluation, uncertainty reduction, and rapid feedback necessary to develop and deliver a better product faster than our competitors. The specifics of the role of T&E are outlined in the “Digital Building Code for Digital Engineering” released in May 2021 by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics. The overall guidance and relationship to items specific to T&E are summarized in the table below.<br> <br> In the future, the test enterprise will work with program offices to marry the digital twin with the physical system design via the design, test, and validate process. T&E must be integrated with the larger digital engineering campaign to validate technical models that provide baselines for weapons system life-cycle sustainment.<br> <br> In a typical design-test-validate cycle, physical system models are used to provide initial estimates of system performance. Data collected during tests in various environments—such as installed system test facilities or open-air ranges—demonstrate actual system performance and is fed back into the modeling process to validate or update models. These validated models then form the basis for refining system designs or informing other modeling and simulation requirements, such as determining how system performance contributes to mission and campaign-level effectiveness. <hr /> <table border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="5" style="width:500px;"> <caption>Table 1. Overall Guidance and T&E Specifics</caption> <thead> <tr> <th scope="col">Blueprint Element</th> <th scope="col">T&E-Related Guidance</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td>1. Develop digital models of systems</td> <td>1.3 Clearly link [model] requirements to planned verification activities (e.g., technical reviews, certification, testing plans, procedures).<br> 1.5 Include capabilities to predict operational performance and quantify uncertainty in models of a system or subsystem in a simulated, representative environment.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>2. Develop a digital twin and digital thread</td> <td>2.1 Establish and manage a digital thread that links models and digital artifacts and creates an authoritative source of truth. Update digital artifacts throughout the system life cycle to maintain a digital twin of the system.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>3. Implement an integrated digital environment (IDE)</td> <td>3.1 An IDE is a compilation of data, models, and tools for collaboration, analysis, and visualization across functional domains.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>4. Employ a tailored digital strategy for contracting with industry</td> <td>To be determined—guidance is rapidly evolving, but in general, T&E requires access to contractor models and data</td> </tr> <tr> <td>5. Ensure organizational readiness for Digital Engineering</td> <td>5.1 Access to tools and infrastructure, including SysML-based tools, CloudONE and PlatformONE services, DevSecOps processes, and applicable modeling techniques for applications such as structures, design/analysis, embedded software, electronics, and other disciplines as appropriate.</td> </tr> <tr> <td>6. Implement Digital Acquisition</td> <td>6.1 All acquisition plans, program and technical reviews, and testing and certification processes will shift from a fundamentally document-based construct to one based on models and digital artifacts. This includes the T&E Master Plan.<br> 6.1.5 The developmental and operational test communities should engage early to determine strategy and planning for employing model-based T&E activities. Verification and validation of models is critical to achieving authoritative virtualizations of systems.<span style="display:none;"> </span></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h6>Source: Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics.</h6> <hr /> We envision that the data collected, across all phases of T&E, in the future will be more widely available as one component of an authoritative data source that is fed into, and managed by, an enterprise data management system used to validate and update a system’s digital twin. Using models throughout the life cycle to digitally represent the system of interest in the virtual world requires a continuous evaluation process such as that shown in Figure 1. This process generates the authoritative source of truth that determines system requirements, aids acquisition decision-making, and matures robust operational tactics, techniques, and procedures.<br> <br> As illustrated by Figure 2, T&E also adds value to the interface between digital tools by sharing authoritative source data from tests and models, validating models, and integrating data sets up and down the Systems Engineering “V.” This minimizes duplication and increases consistency. T&E takes requirements and data from a system’s digital twin and tests the models, prototypes, and physical articles to provide performance data to support the digital twin’s verification, validation, and accreditation. <h2>AFTC Digital Engineering Initiatives</h2> A few years ago, the AFTC experienced what we now call digital engineering “in the small” and “in reverse.” In 2016 and 2017, two AFTC units—the 412th Test Wing at Edwards Air Force Base, California, and the Arnold Engineering Development Complex at Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee—tested the climb performance of a commercial off-the-shelf T-53A aircraft modified with a new propeller. Since no government-owned models or data existed, the two AFTC units collaborated to develop high-fidelity aircraft models from scratch by beginning with a scan of the physical aircraft. Using the model-test-validate approach depicted in Figure 3, the test team then validated the digital model and used the model to accurately predict rate-of-climb performance. In addition to addressing the program manager’s concerns, the digital model also can be used, if desired, to update aircraft performance information in the manuals that pilots use for planning flights. Although the program was small in scope, it showed the incredible promise of digital engineering as a concept, and the central role T&E plays in it.<br> <br> <img alt="Figure 1. Models and Continuous Evaluation" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Nov-Dec_2021/DefAcqNov-Dec21_article2_figure1.jpg" style="width:100%;" /><br> <br> The next section highlights a few corporately sustained, recognized, and viable capabilities essential in the generation of good models to support Air Force processes as authoritative source data from within the Air Force. First, let’s look at the Joint Simulation Environment (JSE), and its physical counterpart, the Multi-Domain Test Force (MDTF). Next, we will discuss a few targeted efforts within the MDTF portfolio and the deep-learning analytics (machine learning data fusion) critical for authoritative decision making and model accreditation. Through these efforts, T&E is transforming itself and fostering digital engineering in the conduct of evaluations in more integrated (and virtual) environments.<br> <br> Just like in the race car world, the JSE represents the digital track in the virtual world—the operational environment’s digital twin. The JSE is being developed as a high-fidelity simulation using aircraft operational flight program software. The environment can be accredited for a test as a supplement to the traditional OAR. JSE’s three goals are to do the following: <ol> <li>Perform developmental and operational activities, especially those that cannot be performed on an OAR.</li> <li>Conduct high-end advanced training and tactics.</li> <li>Support experimentation of future weapon systems, warfighting, and employment concepts.</li> </ol> Just as T&E is the process by which the digital twin is married to the physical design, JSE is marrying a digital range to the OAR environment. The JSE enables high density, high-end threat replication and allows for a better test of fifth- and sixth-generation aircraft and weapon capabilities. It is a scalable, open architecture environment that integrates live, virtual, and constructive models. It is government-owned and operates as a multi-domain battlespace environment—a virtual test and training range. JSE enables a continuous development and delivery pipeline with common models and analysis tools and current threat data that operates in multi-level security environments. To sum up, JSE gives programs the ability to robustly test models on a validated digital test range, against a representative threat, before bending metal.<br> <br> <img alt="Figure 2. T&E’s Multiple Interfaces in Program Management" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Nov-Dec_2021/DefAcqNov-Dec21_article2_figure2.jpg" style="width:100%;" /><br> <br> The MDTF functions as the integrative and administrative hub for test programs to accelerate change in the Joint All-Domain Command and Control (JADC2) environment. The MDTF integrates the teams and resources currently used to execute Orange and Emerald Flag test events, JADC2 demonstrations, and other test events in the open-air environment. Orange Flag started three years ago to assess the integration of warfighting systems in a dense threat, operationally representative environment to identify and analyze kill-chain strengths and weaknesses with a data-driven approach.<br> <br> Similarly, Emerald Flag is a collaborative multi-Service effort focused on increasing the joint domain Warfighter’s effectiveness, incorporating ground, space, cyberspace, and air platforms to improve information speed and flow. Orange Flag, Emerald Flag, and the U.S. Air Force Warfare Center’s 53rd Wing’s Black Flag work in concert as a test triad to provide robust test environments supporting JADC2, advanced battle management system, and validation of new tactics and technologies for the warfighting force.<br> <br> <img alt="Figure 3. The Model-Test-Validate Approach" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Nov-Dec_2021/DefAcqNov-Dec21_article2_figure3.jpg" style="width:100%;" /><br> <br> The synergistic goals of JSE and the MDTF enable continuous evaluation and rapid feedback. That synergism is essential in a digital engineering world where engineers will use MDTF test event data to validate the digital range of the JSE, and the JSE will augment tests that cannot execute in the OAR. The integrated developmental and operational test environments are essential in accelerated combat capability fielding, and JSE and MDTF form a circle of verification that is indispensable to model validation at program offices.<br> <br> Continuous evaluation that reduces uncertainty, drives value-added test events, and rapidly integrates T&E across the life cycle, requires the ability to integrate data sets up and down the Systems Engineering “V.” Therefore, the Air Force T&E community is developing machine learning fusion models that blend data from multiple sources to create more accurate models. Those data sources can be manufacturing and component-level testing (like the National Radar Test Facility and Wind Tunnels), hardware in the loop facilities (like the Guided Weapons Evaluation Facility), installed system test facilities (like the Benefield Anechoic Facility), and open-air flight test. Machine learning will help quantify the uncertainty, improve model validation, and aid in transferring knowledge from a digital environment to the real world, or vice versa. <h2>Conclusion</h2> Digital engineering holds the promise to deliver better capabilities faster. But the need for trustworthy data lies at the heart of digital engineering. For digital engineering to fulfill its promise, T&E must be embraced as the authoritative source of truth. T&E is no longer just a data source for validating individual models and evaluating system performance; it’s the knowledge source necessary to validate, calibrate, and improve the digital twin through continuous evaluation. <hr />Bjorkman is the Executive Director of the Air Force Test Center (AFTC) at Edwards Air Force Base in California. Her role involves long- and short-range planning, policy development, determination of program and center goals, and overall management of the AFTC. She has a doctorate in Systems Engineering from George Washington University and a bachelor’s degree in Computer Science from the University of Washington and a bachelor’s degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT).<br> <br> Grigaliunas is the AFTC Technical Advisor for Flight Test and Evaluation on airframe, avionics/cyber, propulsion, electronic warfare flight, and supporting ground test capabilities. He holds a master’s degree in Systems Engineering from AFIT and a bachelor’s degree in Computer Engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.<br> <br> The authors can be contacted at <a class="ak-cke-href" href=""></a> and <a class="ak-cke-href" href=""></a>.<br> <br> The views expressed in this article are those of the authors alone and not of the Department of Defense. Reproduction or reposting of articles from Defense Acquisition magazine should credit the authors and the magazine. <hr /><a href="" target="_blank"><img alt="tweet" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Sept-Oct_2021/tweetbutton.jpg" style="width:125px;height:50px;border-width:0px;border-style:solid;" /></a><a href="" target="_blank"><img alt="subscribe" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Sept-Oct_2021/suscribebutton.jpg" style="width:125px;height:50px;border-width:0px;border-style:solid;" /></a></div>string;#/library/defense-atl/blog/Test-and-Evaluation
The Advanced Vehicle Power Technology Alliance — a Successful Interagency Collaboration Advanced Vehicle Power Technology Alliance — a Successful Interagency Collaboration2021-12-08T17:00:00Z,<div class="ExternalClassFB9F2D6AA9544691BA091A1FDC17964D"><img alt="Spc. Michelle Metzger, a motor transport operator with 1487th Transportation Company, Ohio Army National Guard, lubricates her vehicle." src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Nov-Dec_2021/DefAcqNov-Dec21_article4_image01.jpg" style="border-width:0px;border-style:solid;margin-left:5px;margin-right:5px;width:50%;" /> <h6>Spc. Michelle Metzger, a motor transport operator with 1487th Transportation Company, Ohio Army National Guard, lubricates her vehicle.<br> Source: U.S. Army National Guard photo.</h6> <hr />The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have long been involved in significant research in energy use reduction for commercial and military vehicles, respectively. In 2010, the two departments formed the Advanced Vehicle Power Technology Alliance (AVPTA) to co-fund research of value to both partners.<br> <br> Great effort went into developing a charter including the guidelines and structure of AVPTA, which has now existed for a decade and is considered a model for such relationships. This article examines the history of AVPTA, the technical areas covered, and the issues involved with interagency collaboration.<br> DOE has had many successful programs with the commercial automotive industry. The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR), formed in 1992, has worked closely with the DOE. That collaboration spawned many programs, such as a Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles in 1993 and the 21st Century Truck Partnership in 2000.<br> <br> Meanwhile, DoD was addressing issues for military vehicles similar to those DOE addressed for commercial vehicles. But there was no structure for sharing information and leveraging their combined resources. This led to the DoD and DOE decision to form AVPTA. Many lessons have been learned and problems overcome throughout AVPTA’s formation and existence. Although there were many similarities in the need for improved fuel economy, there also were significant differences between commercial and military requirements. AVPTA’s challenge, in part, was to sort out these differences and select areas of common interest and goals.<br> <br> <img alt="Soldiers of Company A, 2nd Battalion, 18th Infantry Regiment, 170th Infantry Brigade Combat Team." src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Nov-Dec_2021/DefAcqNov-Dec21_article4_image02.jpg" style="width:50%;" /> <h6>Soldiers of Company A, 2nd Battalion, 18th Infantry Regiment, 170th Infantry Brigade Combat Team.<br> Source: U.S. Army photo</h6> <hr /> <h3>History</h3> The auto industry had significant structured interactions with DOE, whereas the military’s interactions with the DOE were mostly ad hoc and uncoordinated. Yet both groups—the DOE in cooperation with the commercial auto industry and DoD primarily through the Army—were strongly motivated to significantly reduce fuel consumption. The commercial auto industry had to meet increasingly stringent fuel economy standards (or CAFE—Corporate Average Fuel Economy).<br> Although the military did not have to meet CAFE standards, DoD operates the world’s largest fleet of vehicles, about 470,000 at the start of AVPTA—58 percent tactical transport and 42 percent combat vehicles. The burdened fuel cost during conflict was about 5 times the commodity price for a total of $30 billion in 2010. More than 70 percent of the cargo shipped in convoys was fuel and water and 18 percent of U.S. casualties were related to convoy resupply.<br> <br> The DoD Quadrennial Defense Review in 2010 made two points that related to this discussion: the need for a strategic approach to reduce energy consumption and for strengthened interagency partnerships. This eventually led to a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between the DOE and DoD titled “Concerning Cooperation in a Strategic Partnership to Enhance Energy Security” signed July 22, 2010, by Deputy Secretaries of Energy Daniel B. Poneman and Defense William J. Lynn III. This was the first official document for formation of AVPTA. It acknowledged that the DOE was the lead federal agency for developing and deploying advanced energy technologies and that DoD needed to invest in many of the same technologies.<br> <br> The advantages of forming AVPTA were that it: <ul> <li><em>Creates a partnership with true collaboration to enhance national energy security</em></li> <li><em>Demonstrates federal leadership</em></li> <li><em>Shares capabilities and access to resources</em></li> <li><em>Accelerates technology development</em></li> <li><em>Drives innovation</em></li> <li><em>Increases the value of research investments</em></li> <li><em>Addresses national energy needs</em></li> </ul> With the MOU in place, work began to develop a framework for AVPTA, culminating in a workshop, July 18–20, 2011. The Detroit workshop was attended by the Michigan Congressional Delegation and senior executives and subject-matter experts from industry and academia. The lead organizations were the Army’s Ground Vehicle Systems Center (GVSC)—formerly the Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center—and the DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO).<br> <br> A five-year charter was written and signed on July 18, 2011, by Energy Secretary Dr. Steven Chu and Under Secretary of the Army Dr. Joseph W. Westphal. The charter laid out a general framework for AVPTA and specifically outlined six Technical Focus Areas (TFAs): <ul> <li><em>Advanced combustion engines and transmissions</em></li> <li><em>Lightweight structures and materials </em></li> <li><em>Energy recovery and thermal management </em></li> <li><em>Alternative fuels and lubricants </em></li> <li><em>Hybrid propulsion systems</em></li> <li><em>(including batteries/energy storage)</em></li> <li><em>Analytical tools </em></li> </ul> The 2011 workshop began with VIP briefings on the critical energy needs of the U.S. military and industry, including presentations by Sen. Carl Levin, Dr. Chu, Dr. Westphal, General Motors Vice President Dr. Alan Taub, GVSC Director Dr. Grace Bochenek, and DOE Program Manager Mr. Patrick Davis.<br> <br> After the general session, the technical experts broke into six working groups to cover the six TFAs. At a high level, DoD and DOE strategic goals and strategic drivers, or dominant concerns, were delineated. In some cases, they were very similar, such as the goal of reducing fuel usage. Sometimes, they diverged, as in the case of the DoD driver to lighten logistics requirements in order to save lives.<br> <br> Eventually, the TFAs expanded to seven with batteries and energy storage separating from hybrid propulsion systems. A technical lead was assigned from each agency for each of the seven TFAs. The two leads for each area developed a coordination plan, including opportunities for joint meetings, project integration, and possible joint endeavors. <h3>Structure</h3> Despite the strong start, it took time to develop a viable working structure. In the first phase, DOE’s VTO and the Army lab, GVSC, identified already established projects of mutual interest. These projects were upgraded with additional subject-matter experts and resources. By 2013, new projects of mutual interest to the Army and DOE were being initiated.<br> <br> The TFAs that were delineated in the 2011 Charter continued throughout with relatively few changes (Figure 1). Typically, there would be about 30 subprojects each year divided among the seven areas. The most active TFAs with the most subprojects were lightweight structures and materials, alternative fuels and lubricants, and energy storage and batteries.<br> <br> A new category labeled “Extended Enterprise” was added in Fiscal Year 2017 and included projects technically “endorsed” by DOE, but not directly aligned with its Funding Opportunities Announcement Areas of Interest. GVSC funded the projects, but DOE representatives had access to the meetings and received technical reports. The Extended Enterprise projects centered on fuel cells and a lightweight steel-aluminum alloy, FeMnAl.<br> <br> GVSC subject-matter experts were invited to attend the VTO Annual Merit Review during which GVSC personnel were exposed to the complete VTO project portfolio while participating as review panel members. Joint participation in the review helped to identify areas of mutual technical interest for future new-start projects.<br> <br> A proposed new project needed the approval of both parties, DOE’s VTO and the Army’s GVSC, to become an active AVPTA project. GVSC had a very rigorous internal project review-approval process to initiate a new project. A technical council was briefed by subject-matter experts proposing the projects. Each project had to have an identifiable path to deployment with an accompanying timeline, and a work product consistent with GVSC’s 30-year strategy. There then followed an AVPTA new-start project review and selection process during the VTO’s annual project selection meeting, jointly attended by GVSC and VTO directors and subject-matter experts. Selected projects were publicized based upon VTO’s annual process and timeline for Advanced Vehicle Technologies Research Funding Opportunity Announcements.<br> <br> The approval process leveraged DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory Contract Office to rapidly obligate and efficiently track project funding by individual performers. Selected investigators came from auto companies, auto suppliers, defense industry original equipment manufacturers and suppliers, DOE National Laboratories, universities and colleges, and other businesses. Millions of dollars were jointly contributed to AVPTA, with a resulting level of effort and output that neither agency would have realized alone.<br> <br> <img alt="Figure 1. Project Areas at the Start of Alliance" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Nov-Dec_2021/DefAcqNov-Dec21_article4_figure01.jpg" style="width:100%;" /> <h3>Challenges</h3> As the MOU and charter were being written, there was an obvious common goal of reducing energy usage by ground vehicles. But as the participants began developing project ideas, they also found obvious major differences between the commercial market and military vehicles. Figure 2 shows the divergent paths for commercial and military in fuel economy, emissions, and electrical power. The industry drivers are emissions, CAFE, and profit. The Army drivers, or dominant concerns, are survivability, mobility, lethality, and operational energy. Even the fuel mixes are different, commercial gasoline and diesel versus military jet fuel.<br> <br> As shown in Table 1, the goals, materials, applications, and manufacturing processes are similar in the commercial and military markets, but as shown in Table 2, significant differences are in play. Developing mutually beneficial programs required a detailed understanding of the technologies and constant coordination between the subject-matter experts to ensure maximum benefit to both organizations. <h3>Examples of Successful AVPTA Projects</h3> Numerous research projects were initiated and conducted under AVPTA’s umbrella. Some examples are provided below, showing the diversity, depth, and breadth of the projects.<br> <br> <img alt="Figure 2. Divergent Paths of Commercial Industry and Military" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Nov-Dec_2021/DefAcqNov-Dec21_article4_figure02.jpg" style="width:100%;" /><br> <br> <strong>Lightweight Structures and Materials</strong><br> This TFA was probably the most active of all the groups, and it advanced this research area at GVSC far beyond where it started. A primary challenge was to accomplish dissimilar metal joining, specifically to join a ferrous material (high-strength steel or rolled homogeneous armor) to aluminum. The two metals have very different melting points, so traditional welding is difficult. This is even more difficult when thick sections are used, as required for military vehicles. One group from Pacific Northwest developed a successful method known as friction stir dovetailing, which employs a special tool with a spinning head that generates enough friction to heat and form aluminum into a dovetail that fits into a mechanically cut dovetail groove in a piece of steel. <table border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="5" style="width:500px;"> <caption>Table 1. Examples of Commercial and Military Vehicle Similarities</caption> <thead> <tr> <th scope="col">Goals</th> <th scope="col">Materials</th> <th scope="col">Applications</th> <th scope="col">Manufacturing Processes</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr> <td> <ul> <li>Reduce fuel usage</li> <li>Reduce vehicle weight</li> </ul> </td> <td> <ul> <li>Advanced High Strength Steels</li> <li>Aluminum</li> <li>Composites</li> </ul> </td> <td> <ul> <li>Vehicle structure</li> <li>Diesel Engines</li> <li>Advanced Batteries</li> <li>Energy Storage</li> </ul> </td> <td> <ul> <li>Welding (Friction stir welding, MIG, TIG)</li> <li>Multi-material joining</li> <li>Forming</li> <li>Casting</li> </ul> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="5" style="width:500px;"> <caption>Table 2. Examples of Differences Between Commercial and Military Vehicles</caption> <tbody> <tr> <td style="text-align:center;"><strong><em>Characteristic</em></strong></td> <td style="text-align:center;"><strong>Commercial</strong></td> <td style="text-align:center;"><strong>Military</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td style="text-align:center;"><strong><em>Fuels</em></strong></td> <td style="text-align:center;">Gasoline</td> <td style="text-align:center;">JP-8</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="text-align:center;"><strong><em>Vehicle Weight</em></strong></td> <td style="text-align:center;">2 tons</td> <td style="text-align:center;">Over 70 tons (tank)</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="text-align:center;"><strong><em>Materials</em></strong></td> <td style="text-align:center;">Thin sheet metal</td> <td style="text-align:center;">Thick armor</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="text-align:center;"><strong><em>Volume</em></strong></td> <td style="text-align:center;">High volume</td> <td style="text-align:center;">Low volume</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="text-align:center;"><strong><em>Built to Withstand</em></strong></td> <td style="text-align:center;">Crash</td> <td style="text-align:center;">Blast, Ballistic</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h6>Source: U.S. Army Ground Vehicle Systems Center</h6> <br> <strong>Alternative Fuels and Lubricants</strong><br> This TFA funded several groups to improve fuel efficiency through friction reduction using various methods, such as lubricant formulation, lubricant delivery, and surface treatment of engine parts. Methods also were developed to measure and predict the relationship of friction to fuel economy. The investigators came from a range of organizations including George Washington University, Northwestern University, Ford Motor Company, Valvoline Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal was to improve fuel economy by 2 percent, and the various efforts were successful.<br> <br> <strong>Energy Storage and Batteries </strong><br> DOE had an ongoing project with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) titled “Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries” or CAEBAT. GVSC joined the effort through AVPTA in 2013 with the aim of using computer-aided engineering to accelerate the development of Li-ion battery systems for military vehicles while reducing the need for expensive, time-consuming physical testing. Through CAEBAT, numerical design tools were developed to optimize batteries for improved performance, safety, long life, and low cost. The CAEBAT program allowed GVSC to leverage about $20 million in DOE investments.<br> <br> <strong>Electrified Propulsion Systems </strong><br> Due to energy and environmental concerns, electric propulsion systems are becoming more common and are the subjects of continuing research. One part of an electric system is the integrated starter-generator (ISG), which replaces the starter and alternator in a single electric device.<br> GVSC led a project to replace traditional ISGs with ones that don’t require rare-earth magnets. The primary source of rare earths is China, and the supply is subject to disruption. This project aimed to use different types of magnets or even eliminate permanent magnets. GVSC, in cooperation with the University of Akron and DCS Corporation, completed the design, building, and testing of a Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM) that was superior to other non-rare-earth devices. The groups reduced the torque ripple and acoustic noise, common problems in non-rare-earth systems. <h3>Successes</h3> In many cases, internal projects at DOE or GVSC were successful enough to expand to both organizations through AVPTA. One example was an internal GVSC Innovation Project on Engine Combustion Chamber Design. This evolved into an AVPTA project titled “Physics-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Sub-Model Development” to develop more accurate sub-models for the processes within the combustion chamber. An impressive array of scientists from eight different universities worked on the project, each working on a different sub-model: The University of Alabama, Boston University, Georgia Tech, University of Wisconsin, Michigan Technological University, Ohio State, Penn State, and the University of Illinois.<br> <br> In July 2014, Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz wrote Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel, seeking to explore major new collaborative efforts. As a result, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, Operational Energy Plans and Programs (OSD/OEPP) proposed a significantly expanded program for more energy-efficient ground vehicles, called “Increasing the Fuel Efficiency of the Current Ground Tactical Fleet” (IFECGTF). The plan was to build on and strengthen existing AVPTA relationships, program, and funding. The program was awarded to GVSC by OSD/OEPP in April 2015. Approximately $25 million of 2015 Operational Energy Capabilities Improvement Funds (OECIF) was allocated for four diverse IFECGTF projects: JP-8 Based Fuel Cell Power; Tactical Vehicle Electrification Kit; Flame Spray Coating for Piston Friction Reduction; and Autonomy to Increase the Fuel Efficiency of Tactical Vehicles.<br> <br> As shown above, there are many benefits to interagency programs. Resources can be leveraged on common problems and money isn’t wasted on duplicating others’ research. Research issues can be considered from a different point of view, which can be illuminating and help drive innovation.<br> <br> But investments in time and resources are needed to achieve these benefits. Developing programs of mutual benefit requires a solid understanding of the operational requirements for each situation and a decision about whether cooperation even makes sense. Buy-in from high levels is needed to show the importance of the partnership and to secure funding. An organizational structure must be built; official documents such as MOUs and charters need to be developed. After the guidelines are in place to initiate the partnership, internal structures at both agencies must be reorganized to manage the Alliance. At GVSC, one person worked full time on the AVPTA administration. Seven other subject-matter experts were responsible for coordinating with DOE VTO counterparts in charge of the Technical Focus Areas. Each of the 20 to 30 projects per year had at least one GVSC person administering or contributing to it. <h3>Summary</h3> In 2016, the original AVPTA charter was renewed/extended for five additional years. A third charter for five more years is in the planning stages.<br> AVPTA is an interagency cooperation success, in view of the impressive number of publications and patents generated through the program and the costs reduced by leveraging the benefits of cooperation. Between 2011 and 2020, DOE and the Army contributed a total of $150 million toward jointly funded AVPTA projects. These results could not have been achieved by either agency on its own.<br> <br> After 10 years, the benefits of the collaboration have far outweighed the investments in time and resources. Former Assistant Secretary of the Army Katherine Hammack commented that AVPTA has far exceeded all expectations for technical performance and has become the reference model for interagency collaboration. <h3>Acknowledgments</h3> Thanks are due to the following associates from GVSC, who generously shared their knowledge about AVPTA: Richard Gerth, Jay Dusenbury, Steve Thrush, Allen Comfort, Kevin Centeck, and Brad Brumm. GVSC would also like to acknowledge DOE’s Vehicle Technology Office for its part in ensuring the success of AVPTA—particularly Patrick Davis, Michael Berube, and Gurpreet Singh. <hr /> <h3><a href=""><strong>See related GVSC video from U.S. Army</strong></a></h3> <hr />Gorsich is the Chief Scientist for the U.S. Army Ground Vehicle Systems Center (GVSC) as well as the U.S. Army Scientific and Professional Chief for Ground Vehicles. He obtained his Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics from MIT.<br> <br> SCHRAMM is a Senior Collaboration Specialist for the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR). Previously, he worked for GVSC where he managed the AVPTA program until 2019. He has a master’s degee in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin.<br> <br> Dasch is a Principal Scientist for Alion Science and Technology and has worked at GVSC for 10 years for the Chief Scientist. She has a Ph.D. in Nuclear and Atmospheric Sciences from the University of Maryland.<br> <br> The authors can be contacted through <a class="ak-cke-href" href=""></a> or <a class="ak-cke-href" href=""></a>. <hr /> <h5>DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. OPSEC #5155.<br> The views expressed in this article are those of the authors alone and not of the Department of Defense. Reproduction or reposting of articles from Defense Acquisition magazine should credit the authors and the magazine.</h5> <hr /><a href="" target="_blank"><img alt="tweet" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Sept-Oct_2021/tweetbutton.jpg" style="width:125px;height:50px;border-width:0px;border-style:solid;" /></a><a href="" target="_blank"><img alt="subscribe" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Sept-Oct_2021/suscribebutton.jpg" style="width:125px;height:50px;border-width:0px;border-style:solid;" /></a></div>string;#/library/defense-atl/blog/Advanced-Vehicle-Power-Technology-Alliance



What to Expect from Your Course Load at American Public University to Expect from Your Course Load at American Public University2021-10-19T12:00:00Z Banner_Q4 2021.jpg, Banner_Q4 2021.jpg Banner_Q4 2021.jpg<div class="ExternalClass6E95F349E0CE4972B97D319A30FC15EE">Balancing your course load is vital to academic success. In addition to the time you spend in the online classroom, you’ll want to schedule additional time for reading and assignments. By understanding how many hours a week to dedicate to your studies, you can better plan and manage your course load. Good management will aid you in achieving your academic goals without feeling overwhelmed.<br> <br> As you work toward your educational goals while balancing your career, you’ll need to consider the weekly expectations of your instructor, your course load, and your part-time or full-time work schedule. Here’s what you can expect while earning your degree online at American Public University (APU): <br> <br> <strong>Expected Course Load at the Undergraduate Level</strong> <ul> <li>8-10 hours of work each week for a 16-week course</li> <li>15-18 hours of work each week (including all reading) for an 8-week course</li> </ul> <strong>Expected Course Load at the Master’s Level</strong> <ul> <li>10-15 hours of work each week for a 16-week course</li> <li>18-22 hours of work each week (including all reading) for an 8-week course</li> </ul> <strong>Time Management Is Your Best Friend</strong><br> Staying on top of your coursework requires advanced planning and determination to stick to assignment due dates and scheduled study times. Remember that even though you are not in a physical classroom, you should create room in your daily schedule for your classwork, just as you would schedule any other appointment or meeting.<br> Understanding how you spend your time in any given day helps you better allocate dedicated time to your school tasks. Here are five tips from Indeed to help you build your time management skills: <ol> <li>Keep a planner.</li> <li>Set a timer.</li> <li>Schedule your hours.</li> <li>Set short-term and long-term goals.</li> <li>Use your energy wisely.</li> </ol> Providing yourself with scheduled breaks will recharge your energy. Those breaks will also give you the extra motivation to complete your coursework.<br> <br> <strong>Advice for Education Planning</strong><br> Do you have a specific graduation date in mind? <a href="">Start with the month and year you would like to graduate</a>, and work backwards from there to see what kind of registration pace would be needed to meet this date. Unlike most universities that only confer degrees twice a year, we confer degrees six times a year (February, April, June, August, October and December) on the first day of these months. Not every schedule will be the same; you need to figure out what works for you. Keep in mind that your schedule and commitments may change over time, which is where flexibility in course scheduling is key.<br> <br> For more information, go online to <a href=""></a>.<br> <em>*The appearance of U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) visual information does not imply or constitute DoD endorsement.</em><br></div>string;#/partnerships/blog/What-to-Expect-from-Your-Course-Load-at-American-Public-University
3 Compelling Reasons Why APU is Designed Around Your Goals Compelling Reasons Why APU is Designed Around Your Goals2021-07-26T12:00:00Z Q3 2021_Banner.jpg, Q3 2021_Banner.jpg Q3 2021_Banner.jpg<div class="ExternalClassB971F07169C5457BB7DE40A4A4A69919"><strong>3 Compelling Reasons Why APU is Designed Around Your Goals</strong><br> <br> <strong>1. Best-in-class career services</strong><br> We offer best-in-class <a href="">career services</a> at no cost to students and alumni, which include everything from coaching and resume reviews to virtual career fairs that can connect you with leading employers whether they’re corporations or federal agencies. These services are no cost and available for life – whether you’re a student or an alumnus.<br> The Career Services team holds the latest in coaching credentials and are highly skilled in helping you be at your best while performing a career search or preparing to make the best, first impression with hiring managers or looking to advance in your current organization. The team helps civilians, veterans and transitioning service members define their career goals and outline key steps to achieve those goals.<br> <br> <strong>2. Less Complicated – More Transfer Friendly</strong><br> We’re less complicated and <a href="">more transfer (credit) friendly</a>. Previously earned credits and even your career background may accelerate degree completion at any degree level. If you have any academic credits from other universities, professional training or military service, don’t leave previously earned credits on the table.<br> We provide you with a dedicated, helpful team and our $0 transfer credit evaluation (TCE) service. Even as a prospective student, you can request a free preliminary transfer credit review. It’s important to understand that previously earned credits and even your career background can accelerate degree completion at the undergraduate and graduate levels.<br> We work hard to ensure that transfer students get all the credit they deserve. Students can earn up to 90 transfer credits toward a bachelor’s degree. We’ll review your college credits, JST and CCAF transcripts, DANTES, POST, ACE-evaluated training, and credits by exam.<br> <br> <strong>3. Flexible Education that Fits Your Life</strong><br> You don’t have to sacrifice quality for convenience when it comes to affordable education. Combined with the fact that you can choose from over <a href="">200 career-relevant programs</a> with classes that start monthly—you have the ability to achieve your educational goals using asynchronous online education that works around your busy schedule. Moreover, our faculty members are scholar-practitioners, with many holding leadership positions in their fields.<br> For more information, go online to <a href=""></a>.<br> <br> <em>*The appearance of U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) visual information does not imply or constitute DoD endorsement.</em><br></div>string;#/partnerships/blog/3-Compelling-Reasons-Why-APU-is-Designed-Around-Your-Goals-



New DoDI 5000.91 Product Support Metrics Requirementsstring;#/training/career-development/logistics/blog/New-DoDI-5000-91-Product-Support-Metrics-RequirementsNew DoDI 5000.91 Product Support Metrics Requirements2021-12-03T17:00:00ZBill Kobrenstring;#/training/career-development/logistics/blog/New-DoDI-5000-91-Product-Support-Metrics-Requirements
December 2021 DAU eNewsletter Is Now Availablestring;#/training/career-development/logistics/blog/December-2021-DAU-eNewsletter-Is-Now-Available-December 2021 DAU eNewsletter Is Now Available2021-12-03T12:00:00ZBill Kobrenstring;#/training/career-development/logistics/blog/December-2021-DAU-eNewsletter-Is-Now-Available-
Acquiring Space Capability As A Servicestring;#/training/career-development/program-management/blog/Acquiring-Space-Capability-As-A-Service-Acquiring Space Capability As A Service2021-12-03T12:00:00ZSteve Skottestring;#/training/career-development/program-management/blog/Acquiring-Space-Capability-As-A-Service-
New Program Requirements Development Trainingstring;#/training/career-development/logistics/blog/New-Program-Requirements-Development-TrainingNew Program Requirements Development Training2021-12-02T17:00:00ZBill Kobrenstring;#/training/career-development/logistics/blog/New-Program-Requirements-Development-Training



COR Office Hours Office Hours2021-12-07T16:45:00Zstring;#/events/COR-Office-Hours 12_07_2021
Adaptive Acquisition Framework: Product Support Management Acquisition Framework: Product Support Management2021-12-07T17:30:00Zstring;#/events/Adaptive Acquisition Framework Product Support Management
​Acquisition Topics: Get the Facts: The Intellectual Property Legal Experts on Additive Manufacturing​Acquisition Topics: Get the Facts: The Intellectual Property Legal Experts on Additive Manufacturing2021-12-08T15:00:00Zstring;#/events/Intellectual Property Legal Experts on Additive Manufacturing
OTA Today: AFWERX 101 Today: AFWERX 1012021-12-08T17:00:00Zstring;#/events/OTA-Today-AFWERX-101
Let's Talk Agile: Intel for the Win's Talk Agile: Intel for the Win2021-12-08T18:00:00Zstring;#/events/Lets-Talk-Agile-Intel-for-the-Win
CONNECT Live! Live!2021-12-09T16:30:00Zstring;#/events/CONNECT-Live-9-Dec

Chat with DAU Assistant
Bot Image