It there a comprehensive DoD document covering veritication processes and required documentation?
Based on your question, it is difficult to determine if you are referring to the routine verification that accompanies the submission and acceptance of materiel by the Department of Defense, or to a one-time verification of requirements.
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For routine inspection and acceptance of materiel : The system specification (Section 4) shall describe the verification method used to determine if the requirements (Section 3) have been met. MIL-STD-961E paragraph 5.9 is where this is discussed.
The one-time technical review associated with demonstration of the adequacy of the systems engineering process in developing a compliant design would be a Functional Configuration Audit (FCA), or as more commonly done currently, a combined Functional Configuration Audit/System Verification Review (FCA/SVR). Guidance for Functional Configuration Audits can be found in MIL-HDBK-61, Configuration Management.
See also DAG22.214.171.124.5 System Verification Review (SVR):
"The SVR is a multi-disciplined product and process assessment to ensure the system under review can proceed into Low-Rate Initial Production and full-rate production within cost (program budget), schedule (program schedule), risk, and other system constraints. Generally this review is an audit trail from the System Functional Review. It assesses the system functionality, and determines if it meets the functional requirements (derived from the Capability Development Document and draft Capability Production Document) documented in the functional baseline. The SVR
establishes and verifies final product performance. It provides inputs to the Capability Production Document. The SVR is often conducted concurrently with the Production Readiness Review. A Functional Configuration Audit may also be conducted concurrently with the SVR, if desired.
Typical SVR success criteria include affirmative answers to the following exit questions:
1.Does the status of the technical effort and system indicate operational test success (operationally effective and suitable)?
2.Can the system, as it exists, satisfy the Capabilities Development Document/draft Capability Production Document?
3.Are adequate processes and metrics in place for the program to succeed?
4.Are the risks known and manageable?
5.Is the program schedule executable within the anticipated cost and technical risks?
6.Are the system requirements understood to the level appropriate for this review?
7.Is the program properly staffed?
8.Is the program's non-recurring engineering requirement executable with the existing budget?
9.Is the system producible within the production budget?
The SVR risk assessment checklist is designed as a technical review preparation tool, and should be used as the primary guide for assessing risk during the review. This checklist is available on the Systems Engineering Community of Practice."
and DAG 126.96.36.199.6. Functional Configuration Audit (FCA):
"A FCA may also be conducted concurrently with the System Verification Review. The FCA is the formal examination of the as tested characteristics of a configuration item (hardware and software) with the objective of verifying that actual performance complies with design and interface requirements in the functional baseline. It is essentially a review of the configuration item's test/analysis data, including software unit test results, to validate the intended function or performance stated in its specification is met. For the overall system, this would be the system performance specification. For large systems, audits may be conducted on lower level configuration items for specific functional areas and address non-adjudicated discrepancies as part of the FCA for the entire system. A successful FCA typically demonstrates that Engineering and Manufacturing Development product is sufficiently mature for entrance into Low-Rate Initial Production."
Guidance for Technical Reviews can also be found in CLE 003, Technical Reviews.