"can two government elements (within the same organization) fund a contractor for the same task?"
It all depends on the contract structure and the specific tasking. The first scenario could be a shared funding - that two elements are both contributing to pay one bill because they are both benefitting from the contractor effort - that is perfectly acceptable. A second scenario is that the contractor employees are working under two different orders under an IDIQ contract for similar work, but probably different programs. If the contract allows that structure - that is acceptable too. A problem would arise if the same employees are working on both orders and charging fulltime to both orders - that is an impossible feat to accomplish and would likely constitute fraud. However if the contractor essentially had two separate teams of employees working the separate efforts - that would be acceptable; as well as if the shared employees were working part time on each order and accurately recording their time against each project. If you have concerns, recommend that you contact the Contracting Officer Representative (COR) if there is one, or the Contracting Officer.
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