What kinds of training are covered by FAR 31.205-44 (a), "Overtime compensation for training and education is unallowable"?
If the contract requires the training, is the training excluded from the prohibition on reimbursing overtime costs for training?
ANSWER: No, the prohibition on reimbursing overtime costs for training and education still stands regardless of whether the contract authorizes training or not.
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There is no official definition of training in the FAR. The cost principle you cited, FAR 31.205-44 has a general concept of a definition as follows:
".....training and education [courses] that are related to the field in which the employee is working or may reasonably be expected to work are allowable...."
Training costs during the day are allowable, overtime costs for training are not.