Can a modification be done for a FAT if completed prior to the POP date? If so, what kind of modification is it?
Referencing Section 52.209-3 FAR: First Article Approval - Contractor Testing.
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(c) If the first article is disapproved, the Contractor, upon Government request, shall repeat any or all first article tests. After each request for additional tests, the Contractor shall make any necessary changes, modifications, or repairs to the first article or select another first article for testing. All costs related to these tests are to be borne by the Contractor, including any and all costs for additional tests following a disapproval. The Contractor shall then conduct the tests and deliver another report to the Government under the terms and conditions and within the time specified by the Government. The Government shall take action on this report within the time specified in paragraph (b) above. The Government reserves the right to require an equitable adjustment of the contract price for any extension of the delivery schedule, or for any additional costs to the Government related to these tests.
I recommend reading FAR Section 52.209-3 for more detailed information. Based on this reference and research I conducted it would seem a modification can be done for a FAT if completed prior to the POP date? It also appears if Period of Performance has expired the contractors responsibility would also expire.
Your Contracting Officer is your best source of information to provide perspective related to your specific program.