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E3 and Spectrum Acquisition Requirements and Verification

E3 and Spectrum Acquisition Requirements and Verification


The Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS) process is the current DoD procurement system intended to guide the development of requirements of future acquisition systems. Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) and Spectrum Supportability (SS) requirements are an integral part of the Joint Staff Interoperability and Supportability Certification process for acquisition programs supporting Milestone B or Milestone C decisions.

CJCSI 3170H (10 Jan 2012) and CJCSI 6212F specify the requirements documentation necessary was well as the format and content of capabilities requirements documentation. The Initial Capabilities Document (ICD), Capabilities Development Document (CDD) and the Capabilities Production Document (CPD) are of particular interest.

Capabilities requirements must then be further developed in performance specifications, contractor work statements and test and evaluation plans/reports.  The primary E3 related performance specification and verification requirements documents are MIL-STD-464 (Platforms) and MIL-STD-461 (Subsystems and Equipment).

The latest JCIDS requirement relative to E3 and spectrum is an EM Spectrum Key System Attribute (KSA) endorsement as part of the System Survivability Key Performance Parameter (KPP) as described in the latest JCIDS Manual (2018).  All systems, including platforms and Systems of Systems (SoS), that might be vulnerable to an adversary’s employment of the EMS (from Extremely Low Frequencies (ELF) of 3 Hz to the upper limit of Ultra Violet (UV) light at 30 PHz) must comply with the Spectrum Protection (SP) KSA and must include EMS threat analyses in the system threat assessment already required by DoD Instruction (DoDI) 5000.2 and the Intelligence Certification (if one is required).   Depending on the type of system, the EMS Survivability Attributes that should be considered in producing a survivable system varies as depicted below. The Spectrum Protection attribute is the broadest in scope and applies to all systems or platforms with electrical or electronic components, including all SDSs. The other four EMS Survivability Attributes currently apply only to SDSs that use the RF portion (3 kHz to 300 GHz) of the EMS for intended operations. 


EMS KSA Application.png

Table 1. Applicability of the Five EMS Survivability Attributes


The EMS Survivability Guidebook will assist requirements document sponsors in addressing EMS Survivability throughout the requirements development process and completion of accompanying JCIDS documents; most notably Initial Capabilities Documents (ICDs) and Capability Development Documents (CDDs). A step-by-step process provides suggested example language to address EMS Survivability in these JCIDS documents, including requirement statements and performance requirements. This threat-informed, risk-managed approach to developing EMS Survivability requirements through attributes, enables systems to prevent, mitigate, and recover from EMS attacks and the impacts of a congested EMS environment. Sponsors addressing legacy Capability Production Documents (CPDs) reissued as CDD Updates, going through an analysis of alternatives (AoA), or additional acquisition processes are also encouraged to utilize this guide to assess EMS Survivability. 


DoDI 3222.03 (DoDI 3222.03 Incorporating Change 2  25 Aug 2014), the DoD E3 Program and (DoDI 4650.01 Incorporating Change 1 - 17 Oct 2017), Policy and Procedures for Management and Use of the Electromagnetic Spectrum, are the requirements documents that require the consideration of electromagnetic environmental effects and spectrum supportability, respectively, in DoD Acquisitions.


This section provides resources and guidance for the development of E3 and Spectrum Supportability requirements and how to verify them.

  • JCIDS Manual (31 Aug 2018) - detailed guidelines and procedures for operation of the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS), and interactions with several other departmental processes to facilitate the timely and cost effective development of capability solutions for the warfighter. This manual provides information regarding activities including identification of capability requirements and capability gaps, development of requirements documents, gatekeeping and staffing procedures, post-validation development and implementation of materiel and non-materiel capability solutions, interaction with other DoD processes, and mandatory training for personnel involved in the requirements processes.
  • JCIDS Primer (DAU)
  • DoDI 3222.03 or (DoDI 3222.03 Incorporating Change 2  25 Aug 2014), DoD Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) Program
  • DoDI 4650.01 and (DoDI 4650.01 Incorporating Change 1  17 Oct 2017), Policy and Procedures for the Management and Use of the Electromagnetic Spectrum


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   MIL-STD-461


MIL-STD-461 establishes interface and associated verification requirements for the control of the electromagnetic interference (EMI) emission and susceptibility characteristics of electronic, electrical, and electromechanical equipment and subsystems designed or procured for use by activities and agencies of the Department of Defense (DoD). Such equipment and subsystems may be used independently or as an integral part of other subsystems or systems. This standard is best suited for items that have the following features: electronic enclosures that are no larger than an equipment rack, electrical interconnections that are discrete wiring harnesses between enclosures, and electrical power input derived from prime power sources. This standard should not be directly applied to items such as modules located inside electronic enclosures or entire platforms. The principles in this standard may be useful as a basis for developing suitable requirements for those applications. Data item requirements are also included.



MIL-STD-461 REQUIREMENTS

Requirement
 Description
CE101
​Conducted Emissions, Audio Frequency Currents, Power Leads
CE102 
​Conducted Emissions, Radio Frequency Potentials, Power Leads
CE106
​Conducted Emissions, Antenna Port
​CS101
Conducted Susceptibility, Power Leads
CS103
Conducted Susceptibility, Antenna Port, Intermodulation
CS104
Conducted Susceptibility, Antenna Port, Rejection of Undesired Signals
CS105
Conducted Susceptibility, Antenna Port, Cross-Modulation
CS109
Conducted Susceptibility, Structure Current
CS114
Conducted Susceptibility, Bulk Cable Injection
CS115
Conducted Susceptibility, Bulk Cable Injection, Impulse Excitation
CS116
Conducted Susceptibility, Damped Sinusoidal Transients, Cables and Power Leads
CS117
Conducted Susceptibility, Lightning Induced Transients, Cables and Power Leads
CS118
Conducted Susceptibility, Personnel Borne Electrostatic Discharge
RE101
Radiated Emissions, Magnetic Field
RE102
Radiated Emissions, Electric Field
RE103
Radiated Emissions, Antenna Spurious and Harmonic Outputs
RS101
Radiated Susceptibility, Magnetic Field
RS103
Radiated Susceptibility, Electric Field
RS105
Radiated Susceptibility, Transient Electromagnetic Field


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     Conducted emissions requirements are designated by "CE---."

     Radiated emissions requirements are designated by "RE---."

     Conducted susceptibility requirements are designated by "CS---."

     Radiated susceptibility requirements are designated by "RS---."

     "---" = numerical order of requirement from 101 to 199.



5.4 CE101, conducted emissions, audio frequency currents, power leads.

5.4.1 CE101 applicability.

This requirement is applicable from 30 Hz to 10 kHz for power leads, including returns, that obtain power from other sources not part of the Equipment Under Test (EUT) for surface ships, submarines, Army aircraft& (including flight line) and Navy aircraft*&

     *For equipment intended to be installed on Navy aircraft, this requirement is applicable only if the platform contains Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) equipment, which operate between 30 Hz and 10 kHz, such as Acoustic (Sonobouy) Receivers or Magnetic Anomaly Detectors (MAD).

            &For AC applications, this requirement is applicable starting at the second harmonic of the EUT power frequency.


5.5 CE102, conducted emissions, radio frequency potential, power leads.

5.5.1 CE102 applicability.

This requirement is applicable from 10 kHz to 10 MHz for all power leads, including returns, which obtain power from other sources not part of the EUT.


5.6 CE106, conducted emissions, antenna port.

5.6.1 CE106 applicability.

This requirement is applicable from 10 kHz to 40 GHz for the antenna ports of transmitters, receivers, and amplifiers. The requirement is not applicable to equipment designed with antennas permanently mounted to the EUT. The transmit mode portion of this requirement is not applicable within the bandwidth of the EUT transmitted signal or within ±5 percent of the fundamental frequency, whichever is larger. For Navy shipboard applications with peak transmitter power greater than 1 kW, the 5% frequency exclusion will be increased by an additional 0.1% of the fundamental frequency for each dB above 1 kW of peak power.


5.7 CS101, conducted susceptibility, power leads.

5.7.1 CS101 applicability.

This requirement is applicable from 30 Hz to 150 kHz for equipment and subsystem AC, limited to current draws ≤ 30 amperes per phase, and DC input power leads, not including returns. This is also applicable to systems that draw more than 30 amps if the system has an operating frequency 150 kHz or less and an operating sensitivity of 1 µV or better (such as 0.5 µV). If the EUT is DC operated, this requirement is applicable over the frequency range of 30 Hz to 150 kHz. If the EUT is AC operated, this requirement is applicable starting from the second harmonic of the EUT power frequency and extending to 150 kHz.


5.8 CS103, conducted susceptibility, antenna port, intermodulation.

5.8.1 CS103 applicability.

This receiver front-end susceptibility requirement is applicable from 15 kHz to 10 GHz for equipment and subsystems, such as communications receivers, RF amplifiers, transceivers, radar receivers, acoustic receivers, and electronic warfare receivers as specified in the individual procurement specification.


5.9 CS104, conducted susceptibility, antenna port, rejection of undesired signals.

5.9.1 CS104 applicability.

This receiver front-end susceptibility requirement is applicable from 30 Hz to 20 GHz for equipment and subsystems, such as communications receivers, RF amplifiers, transceivers, radar receivers, acoustic receivers, and electronic warfare receivers as specified in the individual procurement specification. For Navy ships and submarines, this requirement is applicable for all receivers. The applicable frequencies are a function of the front-end design of the unit being evaluated.


5.10 CS105, conducted susceptibility, antenna port, cross modulation.

5.10.1 CS105 applicability.

This receiver front-end susceptibility requirement is applicable from 30 Hz to 20 GHz only for receivers that normally process amplitude-modulated RF signals, as specified in the individual procurement specification.


5.11 CS109, conducted susceptibility, structure current.

5.11.1 CS109 applicability.

This requirement is applicable from 60 Hz to 100 kHz for equipment and subsystems that have an operating frequency of 100 kHz or less and an operating sensitivity of 1 μV or better (such as 0.5 μV). Handheld equipment is exempt from this requirement.


5.12 CS114, conducted susceptibility, bulk cable injection.

5.12.1 CS114 applicability.

This requirement is applicable from 10 kHz to 200 MHz for all interconnecting cables, including power cables. For EUTs intended to be installed on ships or submarines, an additional common mode limit of 77 dBμA is applicable from 4 kHz to 1 MHz on complete power cables (highs and returns - common mode test).


5.13 CS115, conducted susceptibility, bulk cable injection, impulse excitation.

5.13.1 CS115 applicability.

This requirement is applicable to all aircraft, space, and ground system interconnecting cables, including power cables. The requirement is also applicable for surface ship and submarine subsystems and equipment when specified by the procuring activity.


5.14 CS116, conducted susceptibility, damped sinusoidal transients, cables and power leads.

5.14.1 CS116 applicability.

This requirement is applicable from 10 kHz to 100 MHz for all interconnecting cables, including power cables, and individual high side power leads. Power returns and neutrals need not be tested individually. For submarine applications, this requirement is applicable only to cables and leads external to or that exit the pressure hull.


5.15 CS117, conducted susceptibility, lightning induced transients, cables and power leads.

5.15.1 CS117 applicability.

This requirement is applicable to all safety-critical equipment interconnecting cables, including complete power cables, and individual high side power leads. It is also applicable to non-safety critical equipment with interconnecting cables/electrical interfaces that are part of or connected to equipment performing safety critical functions. It may be applicable to equipment performing non-safety critical functions when specified by the procuring activity. This requirement also has limited applicability to surface ship equipment which have cables routed above deck.


5.16 CS118, personnel borne electrostatic discharge.

5.16.1 CS118 applicability.

This requirement is applicable to electrical, electronic, and electromechanical subsystems and equipment that have a man-machine interface. It is not applicable to ordnance items.


5.17 RE101, radiated emissions, magnetic field.

5.17.1 RE101 applicability.

This requirement is applicable from 30 Hz to 100 kHz for radiated emissions from equipment and subsystem enclosures, including electrical cable interfaces. The requirement does not apply to radiation from antennas. For Navy aircraft, this requirement is applicable only for aircraft with ASW equipment which operates between 30 Hz and 10 kHz such as: Acoustic (Sonobouy) Receivers or Magnetic Anomaly Detectors (MAD).


5.18 RE102, radiated emissions, electric field.

5.18.1 RE102 applicability.

This requirement is applicable for radiated emissions from equipment and subsystem enclosures, and all interconnecting cables. For equipment with permanently mounted antennas this requirement does not apply at the transmitter fundamental frequency and the necessary occupied bandwidth of the signal.


5.19 RE103, radiated emissions, antenna spurious and harmonic outputs.

5.19.1 RE103 applicability.

This requirement may be used as an alternative for CE106 when testing transmitters with their intended antennas. This requirement is met if the emissions do not exceed the applicable RE102 limit in transmit mode. CE106 is the preferred requirement unless the equipment or subsystem design characteristics preclude its use. RE103 should be the preferred method for systems using active antenna or when the antenna impedance has a non-standard impedance curve. The requirement is applicable from 10 kHz to 40 GHz and not applicable within the bandwidth of the EUT transmitted signal or within ±5 percent of the fundamental frequency, whichever is larger. For Navy shipboard applications with peak transmitter power (PtPk) greater than 1 kW, the 5% frequency exclusion is increased by an additional 0.1% of the fundamental frequency for each dB above 1 kW of peak power.


5.20 RS101, radiated susceptibility, magnetic field.

5.20.1 RS101 applicability.

This requirement is applicable from 30 Hz to 100 kHz for equipment and subsystem enclosures, including electrical cable interfaces. The requirement is not applicable for electromagnetic coupling via antennas. For Army and Navy ground equipment, the requirement is applicable only to vehicles having a minesweeping or mine detection capability. For Navy ships and submarines, this requirement is applicable only to equipment and subsystems that have an operating frequency of 100 kHz or less and an operating sensitivity of 1 μV or better (such as 0.5 μV). For Navy aircraft, this requirement is applicable only to equipment installed on ASW capable aircraft, and external equipment on aircraft that are capable of being launched by electromagnetic launch systems.


5.21 RS103, radiated susceptibility, electric field.

5.21.1 RS103 applicability.

This requirement is applicable for equipment and subsystem enclosures and all interconnecting cables. The requirement is applicable as follows:

  1. 2 MHz to 30 MHz Army, Navy and optional* for all others
  2. 30 MHz to 18 GHz All
  3. 18 GHz to 40 GHz Optional* for all

*Required only if specified in the procurement specification

For Army and Air Force: there is no requirement at the tuned frequency of antenna-connected receivers.


5.22 RS105, radiated susceptibility, transient electromagnetic field.

5.22.1 RS105 applicability.

This requirement is applicable to equipment and subsystem enclosures which are exposed to the external electromagnetic environment. For surface ships, this includes external, above deck and exposed below deck installations. The requirement is applicable to Army aircraft for safety critical equipment and subsystems located in an external installation.



MIL-STD-461 TEST SETUPS

Setup.png

                               FIGURE 3. General test setup for non-conductive surface mounted EUT.


Setup2.png

                              FIGURE 4. General test setup for free standing EUT in shielded enclosure.



OTHER DOCUMENTS

DoDI 6055.11    Protecting Personnel from Electromagnetic Fields

SD-2 DoD Acquisitions Buying Commercial Items and Nondevelopmental Items



For questions regarding any of the information located in the Spectrum and E3 Compliance SIA, please contact the Joint Spectrum Center at: disa.annapolis.dso.list.jsc-j5-training@mail.mil




  
  
  
  
  
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