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Science and Technology Management

This Community serves as a resources for science and technology management and provides a forum for the Defense Acquisition Workforce to collaborate and share information, connecting people with the resources that can help enhance their job effectiveness. 

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Martin Falk - Community Owner
Darren Rhyne - Community Leader

Feed / Science and Technology Management

GAO 24-106293 Biometric Identification Technologies, 22 Apr 24
View Document

GAO-24-106293, Biometric Identification Technologies: Considerations to Address Information Gaps and Other Stakeholder Concerns, 66 pages.

GAO-24-106293
USD(R&E) Charters Transition Tracking Advisory Group, 13 Mar 24
View Announcement

This is an interesting development where the USD(R&E) has stood up a chartered Transition Tracking Action Group (TTAG) to leverage data analytics to figure out how DoD transitions/delivers technology to the field. The announcement was released 10 Apr 24 but the group was chartered on 13 March (links to both below, along with today's Inside Defense article).

Inside Defense article: https://insidedefense.com/daily-news/dod-stands-new-team-track-technology-transitions 

TTAG Press Release, includes link to charter
GAO 24-106297 Federal Research: Key Practices for Scientific Program Managers, 8 Apr 24
View Document

New 50-page GAO report, Key Practices for Scientific Program Managers, was released on 8 Apr 24. Study focuses on Basic and Applied Research. It uses FY21 budget data. Study started in October 2022, interviewed over 70 S&T PMs from federal agencies accounting for ~90% of federal Basic/Applied Research in FY21. Also conducted literature review. Compiled 10 "Key Practices for Federal Program Managers to Select, Coordinate, and Monitor Scientific Research" binned in three areas:

- Strengthening and Building Expertise - Practices that help program managers maintain scientific and management expertise. [2 key practices]

- Developing Connections - Practices that help program managers enhance collaboration with the scientific community and the public, as well as within their own agencies and in other agencies. [3 key practices]

- Building a strong research portfolio - Practices that help program managers advance their agencies’ research mission and scientific knowledge in general, while ensuring their own accountability and that of federally funded researchers. [5 key practices]

GAO 24-106297 Key Practices for Scientific Program Managers
Naval Science and Technology Strategy 2024
View Document

The Department of the Navy recently released its 16-page Naval Science and Technology Strategy. It also covers the U.S. Marine Corps. Select the link below to access the strategy from media.defense.gov.

This is an update from the last strategy published in the mid/late 2010s.

Naval Science and Technology Strategy 2024

Discussions / Science and Technology Management

GAO Report on Legislative Analysis and Coordination of Emerging Technologies, 25 Jan 24
0 Replies
View Discussion
January 26, 2024 - 04:46pm
QUESTION

On 25 Jan 24, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) released the 68-page report GAO-24-106122 titled "Federal Regulation: Selected Emerging Technologies Highlight the Need for Legislative Analysis and Enhanced Coordination." The report discussed legislative and regulatory efforts of three federal agencies (see below) in regards to emerging technologies such as drones and AI/ML-enabled medical devices, While the DoD wasn't a focus of this report, how other federal agencies are regulating emerging technologies also used by the Department is of interest.

Agencies mainly discussed: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Federal Communications Commission (FCC), Food & Drug Administration (FDA), and Department of Transportation (DOT). Other agencies were also interviewed as well as foreign government entities and U.S. industry.

The GAO made three recommendations, one each to the FAA, DOT, and FDA.

SCENARIO
COMMENTS
Atlantic Council Releases Final Report of Commission on Defense Innovation Adoption, 16 Jan 24
0 Replies
View Discussion
January 17, 2024 - 01:23pm
QUESTION

The Atlantic Council's Commission on Defense Innovation Adoption, co-chaired by former SecDef Mark Esper, PhD, and former SecAF Debra Lee James, released its 42-page final report on 16 Jan 24.

The report contains 10 recommendations on how the DoD can better adopt cutting edge technology and improve the National Defense Industrial Base. I don't think any of these recommendations are new. They are:

  1. Introduce a new capability portfolio model in 2024
  2. Consolidate program elements
  3. Reset reprogramming authorities
  4. Modernize DoD to align with the twenty-first century industrial base
  5. Strengthen alignment of capital market to defense outcomes
  6. Incentivize tech companies to do business with DoD
  7. Modernize budget documents
  8. Establish bridge fund for successfully demonstrated technologies
  9. Scale the Space Development Agency (SDA) model
  10. Modernize the DoD's requirements system

The report also contains eight vignettes (aka case studies) of recent successes in areas covered by the recommendations.

  1. Leveraging operational innovation and experimentation to demonstrate the value of commercial capabilities to meet operational needs
  2. Purposeful experiementation and scaling SBIRs (Small Business Innovation Research) for more rapid and well-aligned tech adoption
  3. Tying experimentation to acquisition outcomes and leveraging DIU (Defense Innovation Unit) commercial-landscape monitoring
  4. Pivoting to modern information-technology capability portfolio management
  5. Modernizing capability requirements
  6. Communicating demand signal to leverage commercial-sector innovation and adopt private-sector best practices
  7. Leveraging warfighting insights and commercial product vision to develop new innovative products
  8. Incorporating robust user feedback with government and private seed funding to deliver unique commercial capability

The report can be accessed from the Atlantic Council site.

There is also an Inside Defense article about the report's release.

SCENARIO
COMMENTS
New DoD TRA Guidebook Released, 30 Jun 23
0 Replies
View Discussion
Darren Rhyne
December 20, 2023 - 06:55pm
QUESTION

OUSD(R&E)'s Office of the Executive Director for Systems Engineering & Architecture (SE&A) released an updated Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) Guidebook on 30 Jun 23. This 98-page guidebook replaces the TRA Guidance published in 2011.

For those who remember the TRA Deskbook last released in 2009, this guidebook is similar in scope to that deskbook in that it goes beyond the 2011 TRA Guidance in discussing content beyond just a TRA.

Section 1 coveres the benefit of conducting TRAs, TRA in statute and DoD policy, TRAs in the commercial sector, and the GAO's TRA Guide released in 2020.

Section 2 discusses Critical Technology Elements (CTEs) and Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs), including TRLs for hardware and software. The section also include discussion of assessing hardware CTEs for aircraft, ground vehicles, missiles and guided weapons, ships and ship systems, hardward for IT applications, and hardward for space systems. There's also a discussion of assessing software CTEs.

Section 3 covers four "Characteristics of a High-Quality TRA." Lilmitations of TRAs are also discussed along with Human Systems Integration considerations in TRA.

Section 4 discusses "Initiatiing and Conducting High-Quality TRAs," including key players and their roles & responsibilities, the five-step TRA process, and options for addressing immature CTEs. The section also addresses the Independent Technical Risk Assessment (ITRA) required for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs). The section wraps up with a discussion of a Technology Maturation Plan (TMP).

Section 5 is titled "TRAs for the Adaptive Acquisition Framework Pathways." Table 5-1, TRA Guidance for AAF Pathways, contains a "TRA Relevance" column for each pathway, with the Major Capability Acquisition (MCA) pathway discussed in detail in a sub-section.

Section 6 discusses four "Other Types of Readiness Levels." These are Manufacturing Readiness Levels (MRLs), Integration Readiness Levels (IRLs), System Readiness Levels (SRLs), and Sustainment Maturity Levels (SMLs).

The guidebook contains three lettered appendices. Appendix A contains "Guidance and Best Practices for Identifying Critical Technology Elements." Appendix B contains a "Suggested TRA Outline." Appendix C contains a "Technology Maturation Plan Template."

The guidebook concludes with a glossary, list of acronyms, and references.

SCENARIO
COMMENTS
Multi-Agency R&D Priorities for FY25 Budget memo, 17 Aug 23
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August 18, 2023 - 10:06am
QUESTION

​On 17 Aug 23, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (both under the Executive Office of the President) released their annual memo "Multi-Agency Research and Development Priorities for the FY 2025 Budget."

This year's memo is only four pages, the shortest in years. The memo "outlines the Administration's multi-agency R&D priorities for formulating fiscal year (FY) 2025 Budget submissions to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)." In reality, the S&T organizations under the agencies to which the memo is directed have already developed those budget submissions and are sending, or have already sent, their FY25 budget proposals to OSD this month. If anything, this memo provides the OSD S&T folks in OUSD(R&E) a back-check on the Administration's priorities in the budget process, but not guidance to help formulate those budgets as the memo states.

The priority guidance for FY25 covers several areas but they are not numbered or explicitely prioritized among themselves. Unlike in past years, they are not separated into mission- or functional-area and enablers but all grouped together. However, the last three priorities listed below appear to be such broad, enabling areas. Many of these priorities for S&T are already reflected in the National Security Strategy and National Defense Strategy that were released in October 2022. Each priority below contains further guidance in the memo.

  • Advance trustworthy artificial intelligence (AI) technology that protects people’s rights and safety, and harness it to accelerate the Nation’s progress.
  • Lead the world in maintaining global security and stability in the face of immense geopolitical changes and evolving risks.
  • Step up to the global challenge of meeting the climate crisis by reimagining our infrastructures, renewing our relationship with nature, and securing environmental justice.
  • Achieve better health outcomes for every person.
  • Reduce barriers and inequities.
  • Bolster the R&D and industrial innovation that will build the Nation’s future economic competitiveness from the bottom up and middle out.
  • Strengthen, advance, and use America’s unparalleled research to achieve our Nation’s great aspirations.
SCENARIO
COMMENTS
EO Addressing US Investments in Certain National Security Technologies, 9 Aug 23
0 Replies
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August 11, 2023 - 09:58am
QUESTION

​On 9 Aug 23, President Biden released the "Executive Order on Addressing United States Investments in Certain National Security Technologies and Products in Countries of Concern." These technologies and products "are critical to such countries' military, intelligence, surveillance, or cyber-enabled capabilities."

The three areas of investment affected are in:

- Semiconductors and microelectronics

- Quantum information

- Artificial intelligence

SCENARIO
COMMENTS
New OT Guide for Research and OT Guide v2.0 Issued June & July 2023
0 Replies
View Discussion
August 2, 2023 - 12:51pm
QUESTION

​In early June 2023, the OUSD(R&E) released an new guide on Other Transactions (OTs) for Research under 10 U.S.C. 4021. The 35-page guide is not dated nor does it have a formal-looking title page like most sponsored guides have. However, the OT CoP lists it and the guide is posted on the official DPAP site so I take it as an official guide.

The updated, broader 51-page DoD Other Transactions Guide v2.0, issued in July 2023 by OUSD(A&S), defers to the OT for Research Guide on those matters. It covers changes made since the last guide was published in 2018.

DAU held a web event discussing the changes to the OT Guide v2.0 on 2 Aug 23. The slides for that event are available on its event page and the recording of it will be posted there in 3-5 business days after the event.

SCENARIO
COMMENTS
QUESTION: R&D Incremental Funding / Non-severable Deliverable / Availability of Appropriations
3 Replies
View Discussion
August 1, 2023 - 09:25pm
QUESTION

Does anyone know what the source document would be that provides validation that Congress authorized multi-year appropriations, with a period fo availability beyond a non-severable R&D delivery completion date, to be incremental funded? 

 

This question is related to the guidance provided in the DoD FMR 7000.14-R, Recording Contract Obligations (080304), para 3.4.2.2 Non-Serverable services, under the section that reads:

"The performance period of a fixed price non-severable services contract may cross fiscal years, but must be fully funded in the initial fiscal year unless contract funding requirements exist as set forth in DFARS 232.703-1(1)(ii).  Unless the period of performance is entirely within the charged acount's period of availability, if funded using a multi-year appropriation, non-severable service contracts may not be funded on an incremental basis *unless Congress has authorized incremental funding.*"

SCENARIO
COMMENTS
Content Author… August 2, 2023 - 10:30am

I've asked our DAU SME on multi-year funding, John Pritchard, to look into this for you.​

Suski, Deborah… December 1, 2023 - 05:41pm

Is he referring to the guidance in the DoD FMR Vol 2A under RDT&E incremental funding

Gerbino, Kelly… March 18, 2024 - 06:26pm

Good morning. Is it possible to post the response to this topic from Mr. Pritchard? There seems to be a disconnect in DFARS 232.703-1(ii) and FMR 700.14-R Volume 11A 6.4.15 which states " 6.4.1.5.  Because Research, Development, Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) requirements are iterative in nature, RDT&E programs, projects and activities are not subject to full funding policies.  For example, DFARS 232.703-1 permits DoD organizations to incrementally fund a fixed-price contract for severable services if the contract is funded with research and development appropriations.  Refer to DFARS 232.703-1 for additional guidance and restrictions.  Similarly, DoD budgetary policy in Volume 2A, Chapter 1 provides that RDT&E budget estimates are prepared on an incrementally funded basis and only those funds required for work in a given fiscal year must be included in the RDT&E request for that fiscal year.  DoD Components are encouraged to fully fund RDT&E contracts for non-severable services.   In addition, the change log  " 6.4.1.5. (030604.A.5) Added clarification that severable services can be procured under incrementally funded fixed-priced contracts using research and development appropriations as stated in DFARS 232.703-1. "   In summary,  are we prohibited and what suffices to document when we are 'encouraged' ? 

USD(R&E) Re-designates Its Deputies' Duty Titles, 12 Jul 23
0 Replies
View Discussion
July 25, 2023 - 08:15am
QUESTION

USD(R&E) re-designated its deputy leadership positions from Deputy CTOs to Assistant Secretaries of Defense (ASDs) and their deputies to DASDs on 12 Jul 23. This aligns OUSD(R&E) leadership titles with those of OUSD(A&S). The original memo was not released, only a press release on 24 July.



SCENARIO
COMMENTS

Events / Science and Technology Management

2024 Emerging Technologies for Defense Conference & Exhibition
View Event

Sponsored by the NDIA's Emerging Technologies Institute. 

Location: Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Washington, DC

Registration opens in early May 2024

2024 Emerging Technologies for Defense Conference and Exhibition

Announcements / Science and Technology Management

Community Announcement / Science and Technology Management
USD(R&E) Charters Transition Tracking Advisory Group, 13 Mar 24
View Announcement

This is an interesting development where the USD(R&E) has stood up a chartered Transition Tracking Action Group (TTAG) to leverage data analytics to figure out how DoD transitions/delivers technology to the field. The announcement was released 10 Apr 24 but the group was chartered on 13 March (links to both below, along with today's Inside Defense article).

Inside Defense article: https://insidedefense.com/daily-news/dod-stands-new-team-track-technology-transitions 

TTAG Press Release, includes link to charter
Community Announcement / Science and Technology Management
Engineers Week, 18-24 Feb 24
View Announcement

The 19th Annual Engineers Week is coming up 18-24 Feb 24. For more info on the national celebration, visit the Discover Engineering Engineering Week webpage.

The USD(R&E) Chief Technology Officer, Honorable Heidi Shyu, will hold an event at the Pentagon on 21 Feb 24, 1330-1500. For more info on this event, visit the SE&A News page.

Engineers Week
Community Announcement / Science and Technology Management
Defense Innovation Board Winter Public Meeting and Updates on Studies
View Announcement

The Defense Innovation Board (DIB), chaired by Mike Bloomberg, recently held its winter public meeting at which it announced new studies and provided updates on ongoing studies. A recording of the winter meeting can be accessed here. An Inside Defense article by Georgina DiNardo posted on 26 Jan 24 provides a synopsis of the meeting and new and ongoing studies.

Optimizing How We innovate with Our Allies and Partners TOR (2 pages)

Aligning Incentives to Drive Faster Tech Adoption TOR (2 pages)

Lowering Barriers to Innovation report (13 pages).

Building a DoD Data Economy report (28 pages)

Terraforming the Valley of Death report (26 pages)

An Innovation Strategy for the Decisive Decade report (7 pages)

Prelilminary Observations & Key Considerations for the National Defense Science and Technology Straegy report (2 pages)

Defense Innovation Board

Resources / Science and Technology Management

Community Resource / Science and Technology Management
S and T Organizations and Related Links

Science and Technology is managed and performed at a variety of organizations within the DoD. These organizations jointly plan their work, as reflected in the ASD(R&E) Technology Area Review and Assessment. Information about the programs within each of these organizations is described.

Army Organizations

Air Force Organizations

Navy Organizations

Technology Transfer Organizations

Defense Organizations

Other US Government ?Science and Technology Organizations

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Community Resource / Science and Technology Management
Army Applications Laboratory Performance Report 20240309

The Army Applications Laboratory, which was established under Army Futures Command over three years ago, released its first performance report on 9 Mar 24. Access the 38-page report here.

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Community Resource / Science and Technology Management
Building Capability with Defense Innovation Unit (DIU) DAU Event, 21 Feb 24

DAU hosted the subject web event on 21 Feb 24. View the event recording at its webpage.

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Community Resource / Science and Technology Management
Supporting Tech Transfer with Partnership Intermediary Agreements DAU Event, 20 Mar 24

DAU hosted the subject web event on 20 Mar 24. Panelists discussed use of Partnership Intermediary Agreements (PIAs) for technology transfer. View the event recorded and associated slides at its webpage.

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Community Resource / Science and Technology Management
Failing Forward - Invigorating Innovation Through Iteration and Resilience DAU Event

DAU hosted the subject web event as part of its Innovate to Win series on 21 Mar 24. View the event recording and associated slides at its webpage.

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Community Resource / Science and Technology Management
Technology Management - Begin with the End in Mind DAU Web Event, 21 Mar 24

DAU hosted a web event on 21 Mar 24 concerning Technology Management in the context of Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages (DMSMS). View the recording and attached slides at the event's webpage.

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Community Resource / Science and Technology Management
STM Training (as of 1 Feb 24)

In February 2022, the Science and Technology Manager (STM) DAWIA career field was incorporated into the new Back-to-Basics Engineering and Technical Management (ETM) functional area. Therefore, there are no longer any specific STM training courses required for the ETM functional area.

However, DAU has developed some STM courses and credentials that contain STM-relevant training content. The first of these courses is STM 1010, Introduction to DoD Science and Technology Management, a ~4-hour online training course. STM 0010, Prototyping and Experimentation, remains available to take, too. Since 2022, DAU has deployed two other STM courses, STM 0020, Fundamentals of Science and Technology Protection, and STM 2040, Technology Project Management. There is also an STM-focused credential, CENG 012, Technology Project Management Credential, that encompasses STM 1010, STM 2040, and a capstone assessment.

More STM-related training is in development for deployment in 2024-25. This post will be updated as training assets become available.

Other DAU courses and credentials that may be of interest to STM practitioners include:

CLE 068, Intellectual Property and Data Rights, and CON 0180, Data Rights

CACQ 008, Foundational Intellectual Property Credential

PMT 0170, Risk Management

CACQ 004, Introduction to Risk, Issue, and Opportunity Management Credential

CON 0660, Other Transactions (OTs), CON 2880V, Neg-OTA-tion 101, and CON 2990V, OTA Simulation

CCON 023, Other Transaction Authority (OTA) Credential

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Community Resource / Science and Technology Management
DoD Policy and Guidance

Science and Technology DOD Policy and Guidance

Directives and Instructions
  • DoDI 5000.83, Technology and Program Protection to Maintain Technological Advantage
  • DoDI 5000.88, Engineering of Defense Systems

 

Guidance Memos and Guidebooks

 

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Documents / Science and Technology Management

GAO 24-106293 Biometric Identification Technologies, 22 Apr 24
Document Type:
Page Link
Modified: Changed by Rhyne, Darren on
Summary

GAO-24-106293, Biometric Identification Technologies: Considerations to Address Information Gaps and Other Stakeholder Concerns, 66 pages.

GAO 24-106297 Federal Research: Key Practices for Scientific Program Managers, 8 Apr 24
Document Type:
Page Link
Modified: Changed by Rhyne, Darren on
Summary

New 50-page GAO report, Key Practices for Scientific Program Managers, was released on 8 Apr 24. Study focuses on Basic and Applied Research. It uses FY21 budget data. Study started in October 2022, interviewed over 70 S&T PMs from federal agencies accounting for ~90% of federal Basic/Applied Research in FY21. Also conducted literature review. Compiled 10 "Key Practices for Federal Program Managers to Select, Coordinate, and Monitor Scientific Research" binned in three areas:

- Strengthening and Building Expertise - Practices that help program managers maintain scientific and management expertise. [2 key practices]

- Developing Connections - Practices that help program managers enhance collaboration with the scientific community and the public, as well as within their own agencies and in other agencies. [3 key practices]

- Building a strong research portfolio - Practices that help program managers advance their agencies’ research mission and scientific knowledge in general, while ensuring their own accountability and that of federally funded researchers. [5 key practices]

Naval Science and Technology Strategy 2024
Document Type:
Page Link
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Summary

The Department of the Navy recently released its 16-page Naval Science and Technology Strategy. It also covers the U.S. Marine Corps. Select the link below to access the strategy from media.defense.gov.

This is an update from the last strategy published in the mid/late 2010s.

AR 70-31 Standards for Technical Reporting, Army, 18 Jan 24
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Summary

The was reported in the ASA(ALT) monthly newsletter for February 2024.

The Army’s regulation on standards for technical reporting underwent a major revision recently. The updated AR 70-31, which covers formal documentation of the objectives, approach, and results of Army sponsored research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E), was published on January 18th.


This regulation sets policies, responsibilities, and standards for originating, preparing, reviewing, marking, and disseminating technical documentation resulting from RDT&E. Also, it describes the process for making federally funded research available promptly to the public.
From the 2018 version, this new AR 70-31 updates several key provisions.
Changes include those from Department of Defense Instruction 3200.12. This update also incorporates changes from the Office of Science and Technology Policy memorandum: Ensuring Free, Immediate, and Equitable Access to Federally Funded Research, dated August 25, 2022.
Another feature is the added annual requirement to submit unified research and engineering data. Likewise, the regulation adds criteria for submitting science and technology technical documentation and clarifies definitions related to technical documentation submission.
AR 70-31 specifically aims to increase the number of technical publications throughout the Department and to make those publications available at no additional cost to the public, via the Defense Technical Information Center: https://discover.dtic.mil/. The 2024 version of AR 70-31 can be found on the Army Publishing Directorate website: https://armypubs.army.mil/ and directly at the link below.

2022 Assessment of DEVCOM ARL, 26 Feb 24
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The National Academies released its 97-page 2022 Assessment of DEVCOM Army Research Laboratory on 26 Feb 24. The report is available at the link below but you may need to register for an account to access the free download.

CRS Defense Primer on USD(R&E), 22 Feb 24
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The Congressional Research Service (CRS) published an updated Defense Primer on the Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (USD(R&E)) roles, responsibility, and organization on 22 Feb 24. Length is three pages.

CRS Report on Emerging Military Technologies, Updated 22 Feb 24
Document Type:
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Summary

The Congressional Research Service (CRS) published an updated report on emerging military technologies on 22 Feb 24. Length: 43 pages.

"This report provides an overview of selected emerging military technologies in the United States, China, and Russia:

• artificial intelligence, 

• lethal autonomous weapons, 

• hypersonic weapons, 

• directed energy weapons, 

• biotechnology, and 

• quantum technology. 

"It also discusses relevant initiatives within international institutions to monitor or regulate these technologies, considers the potential implications of emerging military technologies for warfighting, and outlines associated issues for Congress. These issues include the level and stability of funding for emerging technologies, the management structure for emerging technologies, the challenges associated with recruiting and retaining technology workers, the acquisitions process for rapidly evolving and dual-use technologies, the protection of emerging technologies from theft and expropriation, and the governance and regulation of emerging technologies."

Defense Innovation Unit 3.0 released 7 Feb 24
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Summary

The Defense Innovation Unit (DIU), established in 2015 by USD(AT&L) Ash Carter, released its third strategy document, DIU 3.0, on 7 Feb 24. A link to DIU's press release of the article is below. It contains a link to the 14-page PDF containing the strategy.

The DIU was elevated within the DoD by SecDef Lloyd Austin in April 2023 when he directed that the organization, which had reported to the USD(R&E) since its creation, now report directly to the SecDef, while remaining administratively supported by the OUSD(R&E).

DIU 3.0 contains eight lines of effort:

1. Focus on the most critical capability gaps and embed with the warfighter to do so. 

2. Partner at every level with DOD’s “engines of scale”

3. Catalyze the DOD’s innovation entities into a community of impact.

4. Take the partnership with the commercial tech sector to a new level.

5. Realize the enormous potential of tech partnership with allies and partners.

6. Build the trust and momentum required for speed and scale.

7. Retool DIU to support all of the above.

8. Provide the Secretary and Deputy Secretary with world class “dual fluency” advice

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