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Spectrum and E3 Compliance

This Community is brought to you by DISA's Defense Spectrum Organization's (DSO) Joint Spectrum Center (JSC). Compliance with Spectrum Supportability (SS) requirements and control of E3 can be critical performance parameters for platforms, systems, and electronic equipment acquired by the DoD. If these technical areas are not given the proper level of attention during the acquisition process, you can be sure that fielded systems will suffer from some level of operational degradation up to, and including catastrophic failures or unacceptable operating restrictions. This CoP is to be used for training purposes only. 

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Brian Blackwelder - Community Leader
Diana Dunty - Community Leader

Feed / Spectrum and E3 Compliance

E3/SS Awareness Training
View Event

Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) and Spectrum Supportability (SS) Awareness Training

INTRODUCTION

image of battlefieldE3/SS Awareness Training is fundamental to preventing, and/or correcting, EMI problems that may arise in the field during a mission. In the past, billions of dollars could have been saved if personnel involved in the acquisition process or operational use of military systems and equipment were better trained to recognize and avoid EMI.

The Defense Spectrum Organization (DSO) is excited to roll out a rotating Virtual Schedule of the entire course catalog (as shown below). These courses are intended for the US DoD acquisition and systems engineering community to better understand how to ensure that all systems are designed to be electromagnetically compatible and spectrum supportable throughout their life cycle.

Various activities within the electromagnetic environment create hazardous situations or impacts to Operators, Equipment, Systems, and Subsystems. Remaining alert to the danger of overexposure to electromagnetic radiation is of the highest importance.

For questions regarding any of the information located in the Spectrum and E3 Compliance CoP, please contact the Joint Spectrum Center at: [email protected].

Note: To attend our Virtual Training courses, you must be a U.S. Civil Servant or a Contractor supporting the U.S. Government (exceptions to this requirement will be considered on a case-by-case basis). Your registration information will be used for verification against the MS Teams Participants information.

REQUEST OR REGISTER FOR A COURSE

 



Spectrum Supportability Process SSP
View Event
Spectrum Supportability 


Spectrum Supportability is the assurance that the necessary frequencies and bandwidth are available to military systems in order to maintain effective interoperability in the operational EME. The assessment of an equipment, or systems, as having “spectrum supportability" is based on, as a minimum, receipt of equipment spectrum certification (ESC), reasonable assurance of the availability of sufficient frequencies for operation, Host Nation Approval (HNA), and consideration of EMC.

  • Spectrum Supportability requires Certification by the acquiring service's Spectrum Management Office
  • Consideration of worldwide allocations and Host Nation regulations
  • Consideration of future spectrum plans
  • Feedback early in the development process
  • Collaboration between acquisition and spectrum management community to mitigate risk



DoDI 4650.01, (January 9, 2009, Change 1 (Administrative), 7 Oct 2017) Policy and Procedures for Management and Use of the Electromagnetic Spectrum 

DoD Instruction (DoDI) 4650.01 identifies DoD policy that requires that a Spectrum Supportability (SS) determination be performed by the DoD Component that is developing or acquiring spectrum-dependent (S-D) equipment or systems.  This written determination shall be completed with the concurrence of the DoD Component or Component Chief Information Officer (CIO), and state whether there is reasonable assurance of SS.  Efforts to obtain SS should be initiated as early as possible during the Technology Development Phase for spectrum dependent equipment or systems.


Spectrum Supportability Risk Assessments (SSRAs)

DoDI 4650.01 also requires system developers of spectrum dependent (S-D) systems and equipment to identify and mitigate regulatory, technical, and operational spectrum supportability (SS) and electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) risks during the development process. The instruction also requires that the resulting spectrum supportability risk assessment (SSRA) be updated to provide increasing levels of detail as the item's design matures. The SSRA constitutes the basis for milestone decision authority determinations of spectrum supportability and provides increasing levels of detail regarding a system’s regulatory, technical, and operational requirements in Initial, Detailed, and Updated SSRAs.

Click here for more information on the SSRA Guidance and information.


DD Form 1494, Request for Equipment Spectrum Certification
  • Purpose:  Ensure DoD equipment and systems are designed to conform to applicable E3 standards, international and national tables of allocated frequency bands, and other frequency guidance
  • Submission reponsibility:  Equipment program office
  • Approval Responsibility:  ESG PWG of the Joint Frequency Panel (JFP)
    • Representatives from each Service
    • Technical Support from JSC
  • Methodology:  Review technical Characteristics on DD Form 1494 for compliance is a four stage process
    •  Stage 1:  Conceptual - Initial planning complete, including proposed frequency bands
    •  Stage 2:  Experimental - Preliminary design complete, radiation using test equipment  and preliminary models may be required
    •  Stage 3:  Developmental - Major design complete and radiation required for testing
    •  Stage 4:  Operational - Development is complete and final operating constraints or restrictions required to assure compatibility need to be identified


Host Nation Coordination

Spectrum is a national resource to be managed by each country. Granting approval to transmit within a country in consideration of potential interference to local receivers are key issues at the discretion of each host nation.
Use by the DoD of U.S. commercial and military C-E systems in host nations requires coordination and negotiation including approvals and certifications.This means that the US military must request permission to use any EM spectrum dependent equipment within a host country’s borders.

The Host Nation Coordination/Approval process generally runs parallel with certification.  Without a certification, most host nation governments will not consider authorizing the use of military systems. The process is complicated in that some countries (NATO member nations for example) follow set procedures that are predictable; while others will not entertain a request for HNC unless we are requesting a frequency assignment for immediate use.  The latter makes it difficult for a developer to assess what band to use for a given application.  


The Spectrum Supportability Process will be applicable to all equipment or systems that require utilization of the electromagnetic spectrum, and will be composed of:
  • Equipment Spectrum Certification
  • Host Nation Supportability Assessment
  • Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) Assessment.


Global Spectrum Issues


Ligado (formerly LightSquared) is seeking FCC approval to provide a wholesale, nationwide, wireless broadband network integrated with satellite coverage. They intend to deploy a low-power terrestrial nationwide 5G network in the L-Band, adjacent to the Global Positioning System (GPS), a plan the FCC backed on April 20, 2020. The frequency band is next to the primary GPS frequency (L1).  The GPS community was concerned because testing has shown Ligado's ground-based transmissions would overpower the relatively weak GPS L1 signals from space. Although Ligado would operate in its own authorized band, the band is so close to the GPS signals that many GPS devices could pick up the stronger Ligado signals and become overloaded or saturated. FCC said the company had to protect GPS bands from interference, including requiring Ligado to have "significant" 23 Mhz guardbands in its own spectrum to separate its transmissions from neighboring satellite GPS operations, as well as limiting the power levels to its base stations and respond to entities that had experienced interference.  There is also concern that millions of existing GPS users could be forced to upgrade their devices and/or accept GPS performance losses to accommodate the new network. 

https://gcn.com/articles/2020/05/08/dod-spectrum-ligado.aspx


ITU global standard for international mobile telecommunications

For the last 20 years, ITU has been coordinating efforts of government and industry and private sector in the development of a global broadband multimedia international mobile telecommunication system, known as IMT. Since 2000, the world has seen the introduction of the first family of standards derived from the IMT concept. Since May 2007, there are more than 1 billion IMT-2000 subscribers in the world!

´IMT-Advanced´ provides a global platform on which to build the next generations of mobile services - fast data access, unified messaging and broadband multimedia - in the form of exciting new interactive services.


GPS Modernization with New Civil Signals

A major focus of the GPS modernization program is the addition of new navigation signals to the satellite constellation. The new signals are phasing in incrementally as the Air Force launches new GPS satellites to replace older ones.  There are four GPS signal specifications designed for civilian use. In order of date of introduction, these are: L1 C/AL2CL5 and L1C.[1] L1 C/A is also called the legacy signal and is broadcast by all currently operational satellites. L2C, L5 and L1C are modernized signals, are only broadcast by newer satellites (or not yet at all), and as of January 2021, none are yet considered to be fully operational for civilian use.  Most of the new signals will be of limited use until they are broadcast from 18 to 24 satellites.  In addition, there are restricted signals with published frequencies and chip rates but encrypted coding intended to be used only by authorized parties.



Roles and Responsibilities



2021 Spectrum Repurposing Report  (December 2020)


Spectrum Repurposing (For 2019 - Opens new page)



NTIA Letter to FCC on Proposed Updated Rules for Short-range Radars in the 60 GHz Band

Docket Number:  ET Docket No. 21-264
Date:  June 29, 2022
NTIA letter to FCC which provides notice that sufficient analysis has been done such that NTIA would have no objection to the Commission proceeding with the adoption of proposed rules for short-range radars in the 60 GHz band.





The 5G Challange - NTIA




Links

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Spectrum Tools

DD Form 1494 Process       

NTIA Redbook        

Spectrum Dashboard




For questions regarding any of the information located in the Spectrum and E3 Compliance CoP, please contact the Joint Spectrum Center at: [email protected]





Spectrum Supportability and E3 Policy and Guidance
View Event

Image removed. E3/Spectrum Supportability Policy and Guidance


DoD Policy requires developers of communication-electronics systems, whether spectrum dependent or not, to ensure system electromagnetic compatibility and that they provide a determination of spectrum supportability before assumption of contractual obligations for full scale development, production, or procurement. Early attention to electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) and spectrum issues is particularly critical in spectrum dependent systems, to mitigate risk and to properly address spectrum supportability and electromagnetic compatibility. Failure to consider E3 and/or spectrum early could result in program delays, additional cost or less than full operational capability. There are many resources available to help assist in spectrum certification and planning.

This section provides details and resources on DoD policies in these technical areas and guidance on implementing those policies for the E3 acquisition community. It provides details on procedures to follow during a program life-cycle to ensure systems will have electromagnetic spectrum to use that they will be compatible when fielded.


The requirement to impose E3 control and ensure Spectrum Supportability in the weapons system acquisition cycle is called out in a variety of policy directives and instructions, including the latest issuances of the following:

 CJCSI 3170.01G      Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System, (1 March 2009)
​ CJCSI 5123-01H
​ Charter of the JROC and Implementation of the JCIDS   (31 Aug 2018)
 CJCSM 3170.01C   Operation of the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System, (1 May 2007)
 JCIDS Manual
 Manual For The Operation of The Joint Capabilities Integration and Development  (20180831)
 DoDD 5000.01
 Defense Acquisition System    (12 May 2003)
 ​DoDD 5000.01 Change 2  
​ The Defense Acquisition System (DAS)  (31 Aug 2018)
 DoDI 5000.02
 Operation of the Defense Acquisition System
 ​DODI 5000.02 Change 5   
​ Operation of the DAS  (21 Oct 2019)
 DoDI 3222.03
 DoD Joint Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) Program   (25 Aug 2014)
​ DoDI 3222.03 Change 2    ​ DoD E3 Program   (10 Oct 2017)
 DoDI 4650.01
 Policy for Management and Use of the Electromagnetic Spectrum
​ DoDI 4650.01 Change 1     Policy and Procedures for the Use of the EMS - CHANGE 1  (17 Oct 2017)
 ​EMS SGV
​ EMS Survivability Guidebook Version 2 - July 2020
​ MCEB Documents
​ Describes the DoD spectrum certification system and functions.



Spectrum Supportability (SS) 

Spectrum Supportability is the assurance that the necessary frequencies and bandwidth are available to military systems in order to maintain effective interoperability in the operational Electromagnetic Environment (EME). The assessment of an equipment, or systems as having “spectrum supportability" is based on, as a minimum, receipt of equipment spectrum certification (ESC), reasonable assurance of the availability of sufficient frequencies for operation, Host Nation Approval (HNA), and consideration of EMC.

  • Spectrum Supportability requires Certification by the acquiring service's Spectrum Management Office
  • Consideration of worldwide allocations and Host Nation regulations
  • Consideration of future spectrum plans
  • Feedback early in the development process
  • Collaboration between acquisition and spectrum management community to mitigate risk



DoDI 4650.01(January 9, 2009, Change 1, 7 Oct 2017) Policy and Procedures for Management and Use of the Electromagnetic Spectrum 

DoD Instruction (DoDI) 4650.01 identifies DoD policy that requires that a Spectrum Supportability (SS) determination be performed by the DoD Component that is developing or acquiring spectrum-dependent (S-D) equipment or systems.  This written determination shall be completed with the concurrence of the DoD Component or Component Chief Information Officer (CIO), and state whether there is reasonable assurance of SS.  Efforts to obtain SS should be initiated as early as possible during the Technology Development Phase for spectrum dependent equipment or systems.

DoDI 4650.01 also requires system developers of S-D systems and equipment to identify and mitigate regulatory, technical, and operational SS and E3 risks during the development process. The instruction also requires that the resulting spectrum supportability risk assessment (SSRA) be updated to provide increasing levels of detail as the item's design matures. The SSRA constitutes the basis for milestone decision authority determinations of spectrum supportability and provides increasing levels of detail regarding a system’s regulatory, technical, and operational requirements in Initial, Detailed, and Updated SSRAs.

SSRAs are required to determine and document if adequate spectrum is available to support system operation in DoD, Allied, and Coalition operations. SS and E3 risks and the steps that need to be taken to mitigate the risks are to be identified in the SSRA and provided to the Military Department (MILDEP) Spectrum Management Office (SMO) who will review the SSRA and forward their recommendations to the Service Chief Information Officer (CIO) for approval. A statement on the spectrum supportability of an acquisition is then forwarded to the milestone decision authority (MDA). Program Manager (PMs)/Materiel Developers (MATDEVs) should consult, as early as possible, with their respective MILDEP SMO regarding the application and tailoring of the SSRA, and to ensure that all user requirements are met.

The detail and scope of each SSRA depends upon the system’s entry point into the DAS, the complexity of the system, knowledge of the S-D systems to be acquired or integrated, and the intended operational EME. In general, each PM/MATDEV is required to prepare and submit an SSRA when the acquisition includes or incorporates an S-D system or equipment, including commercial items (CI) and non-developmental items (NDI) that are S-D.



Spectrum Supportability Risk Assessments (SSRAs)  (Specifics - New Page)




DD Form 1494, Request for Equipment Spectrum Certification

  • Purpose:  Ensure DoD equipment and systems are designed to conform to applicable E3 standards, international and national tables of allocated frequency bands, and other frequency guidance
  • Submission reponsibility:  Equipment program office
  • Approval Responsibility:  ESG PWG of the Joint Frequency Panel (JFP)
    • Representatives from each Service
    • Technical Support from the Joint Spectrum Center (JSC)
  • Methodology:  Review technical Characteristics on DD Form 1494 for compliance is a four stage process
    •  Stage 1:  Conceptual - Initial planning complete, including proposed frequency bands
    •  Stage 2:  Experimental - Preliminary design complete, radiation using test equipment  and preliminary models may be required
    •  Stage 3:  Developmental - Major design complete and radiation required for testing
    •  Stage 4:  Operational - Development is complete and final operating constraints or restrictions required to assure compatibility need to be identified


Host Nation Coordination

Spectrum is a national resource to be managed by each country. Granting approval to transmit within a country in consideration of potential interference to local receivers are key issues at the discretion of each host nation.
Use by the DoD of U.S. commercial and military C-E systems in host nations requires coordination and negotiation including approvals and certifications.This means that the US military must request permission to use any EM spectrum dependent equipment within a host country’s borders.

The Host Nation Coordination/Approval process generally runs parallel with certification.  Without a certification, most host nation governments will not consider authorizing the use of military systems. The process is complicated in that some countries (NATO member nations for example) follow set procedures that are predictable; while others will not entertain a request for HNC unless we are requesting a frequency assignment for immediate use.  The latter makes it difficult for a developer to assess what band to use for a given application.  


The Spectrum Supportability Process will be applicable to all equipment or systems that require utilization of the electromagnetic spectrum, and will be composed of:
  • Equipment Spectrum Certification
  • Host Nation Supportability Assessment
  • Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) Assessment.


Global Spectrum Issues


Ligado (formerly LightSquared) was seeking FCC approval to provide a wholesale, nationwide, wireless broadband network integrated with satellite coverage. They intended to deploy a low-power terrestrial nationwide 5G network in the L-Band, adjacent to the Global Positioning System (GPS), a plan the FCC backed on April 20, 2020. The frequency band is next to the primary GPS frequency (L1).  The GPS community was concerned because testing had shown Ligado's ground-based transmissions would overpower the relatively weak GPS L1 signals from space. Although Ligado would operate in its own authorized band, the band is so close to the GPS signals that many GPS devices could pick up the stronger Ligado signals and become overloaded or saturated. FCC said the company had to protect GPS bands from interference, including requiring Ligado to have "significant" 23 MHz guardbands in its own spectrum to separate its transmissions from neighboring satellite GPS operations, as well as limiting the power levels to its base stations and respond to entities that had experienced interference.  There is also concern that millions of existing GPS users could be forced to upgrade their devices and/or accept GPS performance losses to accommodate the new network. 


ITU global standard for international mobile telecommunications

For the last 20 years, ITU has been coordinating efforts of government and industry and private sector in the development of a global broadband multimedia international mobile telecommunication system, known as IMT. Since 2000, the world has seen the introduction of the first family of standards derived from the IMT concept. Since May 2007, there are more than 1 billion IMT-2000 subscribers in the world!

´IMT-Advanced´ provides a global platform on which to build the next generations of mobile services - fast data access, unified messaging and broadband multimedia - in the form of exciting new interactive services.


GPS Modernization with New Civil Signals

A major focus of the GPS modernization program is the addition of new navigation signals to the satellite constellation. The new signals are phasing in incrementally as the Air Force launches new GPS satellites to replace older ones.  There are four GPS signal specifications designed for civilian use. In order of date of introduction, these are: L1 C/AL2CL5 and L1C.[1] L1 C/A is also called the legacy signal and is broadcast by all currently operational satellites. L2C, L5 and L1C are modernized signals, are only broadcast by newer satellites (or not yet at all), and as of January 2021, none are yet considered to be fully operational for civilian use.  Most of the new signals will be of limited use until they are broadcast from 18 to 24 satellites.  In addition, there are restricted signals with published frequencies and chip rates but encrypted coding intended to be used only by authorized parties.



Roles and Responsibilities



2021 Spectrum Repurposing Report  (

Discussions / Spectrum and E3 Compliance

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Events / Spectrum and E3 Compliance

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Announcements / Spectrum and E3 Compliance

Community Announcement / Spectrum and E3 Compliance
NKO Shifts to My Navy Portal
View Announcement
Community Announcement / Spectrum and E3 Compliance
The US Made the Wrong Bet on Radio Frequency and Now it Could Pay the Price
View Announcement
Community Announcement / Spectrum and E3 Compliance
Joining the New Defense Acquisition University (DAU) Spectrum and Electromagnetic Compliance Community of Practice (CoP)
View Announcement

The Defense Spectrum Office has sponsored , the Spectrum and Electromagnetic (EM) Compliance Special Interest Area on the DAU's Acquisition Community Connection (ACC) portal for many years.  This Community serves as a platform to connect Spectrum and E3 Compliance practitioners from across multiple career fields, offering them a chance to talk, share, and acquire knowledge about key Spectrum and E3 topics.  While you can still browse the material without becoming a member, by becoming a member, you can directly interact with the community in several ways.  

The details of this three step registration process are:

1.     Go to "How do I obtain a DAU account?" https://www.dau.edu/faq/Pages/Login-Issues-CAC.aspx  and select "Login Overview".  Look for "How do I Obtain a DAU Account?".  Read the section "Community Resources (ACC/DAP/AAP/ACQuipedia):"

If you do not already have an account, you must use a DD2875 SAAR form to create one, unless you are a member of the Defense Acquisition Workforce. Use "Access to the ACC Communities of Practice" and your reason for the request.

If you are a member of the Defense Acquisition Workforce, you could register for a course through your organizations Training Application System (TAS). This is the first option on the FAQ Page under Virtual Campus.  

2.     Once your account is created, automated emails should be sent to you saying it has been created and next steps. You will then need to go to DAU's identity management site. https://identity.dau.edu.  There you will setup you password and reset password challenge questions to allow for self-service password resets going forward.

3.     Once the account is all set up, go to the Spectrum and EM Compliance CoP at https://www.dau.edu/sites/default/files/Migrate/cop/e3 and click the blue Join button.  All done!

Bottom line...you must have a DAU account to become a Spectrum and E3 Compliance CoP member, and then you have full access to the benefits of CoP membership.


Community Announcement / Spectrum and E3 Compliance
Federal Spectrum Reallocation Included in Budget Deal
View Announcement
Community Announcement / Spectrum and E3 Compliance
Addressing the Global Threat of EMP Events
View Announcement
Community Announcement / Spectrum and E3 Compliance
MCEB Spectrum Certification and Supportability Process Transitional Work Flow
View Announcement
Community Announcement / Spectrum and E3 Compliance
E3 Program Review Page
View Announcement

​The E3 Program Review page has been created. Please follow this link to learn about the most up-to-date Program Review information.

https://shortcut.dau.edu/sites/default/files/Migrate/cop/e3_E3PR


Community Announcement / Spectrum and E3 Compliance
Article: Electromagnetic Pulse Attack Would Devastate Hawaii
View Announcement

Resources / Spectrum and E3 Compliance

Community Resource / Spectrum and E3 Compliance
E3/SS Awareness Training

Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) and Spectrum Supportability (SS) Awareness Training

INTRODUCTION

image of battlefieldE3/SS Awareness Training is fundamental to preventing, and/or correcting, EMI problems that may arise in the field during a mission. In the past, billions of dollars could have been saved if personnel involved in the acquisition process or operational use of military systems and equipment were better trained to recognize and avoid EMI.

The Defense Spectrum Organization (DSO) is excited to roll out a rotating Virtual Schedule of the entire course catalog (as shown below). These courses are intended for the US DoD acquisition and systems engineering community to better understand how to ensure that all systems are designed to be electromagnetically compatible and spectrum supportable throughout their life cycle.

Various activities within the electromagnetic environment create hazardous situations or impacts to Operators, Equipment, Systems, and Subsystems. Remaining alert to the danger of overexposure to electromagnetic radiation is of the highest importance.

For questions regarding any of the information located in the Spectrum and E3 Compliance CoP, please contact the Joint Spectrum Center at: [email protected].

Note: To attend our Virtual Training courses, you must be a U.S. Civil Servant or a Contractor supporting the U.S. Government (exceptions to this requirement will be considered on a case-by-case basis). Your registration information will be used for verification against the MS Teams Participants information.

REQUEST OR REGISTER FOR A COURSE

 



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Community Resource / Spectrum and E3 Compliance
Spectrum Supportability Process SSP
Spectrum Supportability 


Spectrum Supportability is the assurance that the necessary frequencies and bandwidth are available to military systems in order to maintain effective interoperability in the operational EME. The assessment of an equipment, or systems, as having “spectrum supportability" is based on, as a minimum, receipt of equipment spectrum certification (ESC), reasonable assurance of the availability of sufficient frequencies for operation, Host Nation Approval (HNA), and consideration of EMC.

  • Spectrum Supportability requires Certification by the acquiring service's Spectrum Management Office
  • Consideration of worldwide allocations and Host Nation regulations
  • Consideration of future spectrum plans
  • Feedback early in the development process
  • Collaboration between acquisition and spectrum management community to mitigate risk



DoDI 4650.01, (January 9, 2009, Change 1 (Administrative), 7 Oct 2017) Policy and Procedures for Management and Use of the Electromagnetic Spectrum 

DoD Instruction (DoDI) 4650.01 identifies DoD policy that requires that a Spectrum Supportability (SS) determination be performed by the DoD Component that is developing or acquiring spectrum-dependent (S-D) equipment or systems.  This written determination shall be completed with the concurrence of the DoD Component or Component Chief Information Officer (CIO), and state whether there is reasonable assurance of SS.  Efforts to obtain SS should be initiated as early as possible during the Technology Development Phase for spectrum dependent equipment or systems.


Spectrum Supportability Risk Assessments (SSRAs)

DoDI 4650.01 also requires system developers of spectrum dependent (S-D) systems and equipment to identify and mitigate regulatory, technical, and operational spectrum supportability (SS) and electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) risks during the development process. The instruction also requires that the resulting spectrum supportability risk assessment (SSRA) be updated to provide increasing levels of detail as the item's design matures. The SSRA constitutes the basis for milestone decision authority determinations of spectrum supportability and provides increasing levels of detail regarding a system’s regulatory, technical, and operational requirements in Initial, Detailed, and Updated SSRAs.

Click here for more information on the SSRA Guidance and information.


DD Form 1494, Request for Equipment Spectrum Certification
  • Purpose:  Ensure DoD equipment and systems are designed to conform to applicable E3 standards, international and national tables of allocated frequency bands, and other frequency guidance
  • Submission reponsibility:  Equipment program office
  • Approval Responsibility:  ESG PWG of the Joint Frequency Panel (JFP)
    • Representatives from each Service
    • Technical Support from JSC
  • Methodology:  Review technical Characteristics on DD Form 1494 for compliance is a four stage process
    •  Stage 1:  Conceptual - Initial planning complete, including proposed frequency bands
    •  Stage 2:  Experimental - Preliminary design complete, radiation using test equipment  and preliminary models may be required
    •  Stage 3:  Developmental - Major design complete and radiation required for testing
    •  Stage 4:  Operational - Development is complete and final operating constraints or restrictions required to assure compatibility need to be identified


Host Nation Coordination

Spectrum is a national resource to be managed by each country. Granting approval to transmit within a country in consideration of potential interference to local receivers are key issues at the discretion of each host nation.
Use by the DoD of U.S. commercial and military C-E systems in host nations requires coordination and negotiation including approvals and certifications.This means that the US military must request permission to use any EM spectrum dependent equipment within a host country’s borders.

The Host Nation Coordination/Approval process generally runs parallel with certification.  Without a certification, most host nation governments will not consider authorizing the use of military systems. The process is complicated in that some countries (NATO member nations for example) follow set procedures that are predictable; while others will not entertain a request for HNC unless we are requesting a frequency assignment for immediate use.  The latter makes it difficult for a developer to assess what band to use for a given application.  


The Spectrum Supportability Process will be applicable to all equipment or systems that require utilization of the electromagnetic spectrum, and will be composed of:
  • Equipment Spectrum Certification
  • Host Nation Supportability Assessment
  • Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) Assessment.


Global Spectrum Issues


Ligado (formerly LightSquared) is seeking FCC approval to provide a wholesale, nationwide, wireless broadband network integrated with satellite coverage. They intend to deploy a low-power terrestrial nationwide 5G network in the L-Band, adjacent to the Global Positioning System (GPS), a plan the FCC backed on April 20, 2020. The frequency band is next to the primary GPS frequency (L1).  The GPS community was concerned because testing has shown Ligado's ground-based transmissions would overpower the relatively weak GPS L1 signals from space. Although Ligado would operate in its own authorized band, the band is so close to the GPS signals that many GPS devices could pick up the stronger Ligado signals and become overloaded or saturated. FCC said the company had to protect GPS bands from interference, including requiring Ligado to have "significant" 23 Mhz guardbands in its own spectrum to separate its transmissions from neighboring satellite GPS operations, as well as limiting the power levels to its base stations and respond to entities that had experienced interference.  There is also concern that millions of existing GPS users could be forced to upgrade their devices and/or accept GPS performance losses to accommodate the new network. 

https://gcn.com/articles/2020/05/08/dod-spectrum-ligado.aspx


ITU global standard for international mobile telecommunications

For the last 20 years, ITU has been coordinating efforts of government and industry and private sector in the development of a global broadband multimedia international mobile telecommunication system, known as IMT. Since 2000, the world has seen the introduction of the first family of standards derived from the IMT concept. Since May 2007, there are more than 1 billion IMT-2000 subscribers in the world!

´IMT-Advanced´ provides a global platform on which to build the next generations of mobile services - fast data access, unified messaging and broadband multimedia - in the form of exciting new interactive services.


GPS Modernization with New Civil Signals

A major focus of the GPS modernization program is the addition of new navigation signals to the satellite constellation. The new signals are phasing in incrementally as the Air Force launches new GPS satellites to replace older ones.  There are four GPS signal specifications designed for civilian use. In order of date of introduction, these are: L1 C/AL2CL5 and L1C.[1] L1 C/A is also called the legacy signal and is broadcast by all currently operational satellites. L2C, L5 and L1C are modernized signals, are only broadcast by newer satellites (or not yet at all), and as of January 2021, none are yet considered to be fully operational for civilian use.  Most of the new signals will be of limited use until they are broadcast from 18 to 24 satellites.  In addition, there are restricted signals with published frequencies and chip rates but encrypted coding intended to be used only by authorized parties.



Roles and Responsibilities



2021 Spectrum Repurposing Report  (December 2020)


Spectrum Repurposing (For 2019 - Opens new page)



NTIA Letter to FCC on Proposed Updated Rules for Short-range Radars in the 60 GHz Band

Docket Number:  ET Docket No. 21-264
Date:  June 29, 2022
NTIA letter to FCC which provides notice that sufficient analysis has been done such that NTIA would have no objection to the Commission proceeding with the adoption of proposed rules for short-range radars in the 60 GHz band.





The 5G Challange - NTIA




Links

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Spectrum Tools

DD Form 1494 Process       

NTIA Redbook        

Spectrum Dashboard




For questions regarding any of the information located in the Spectrum and E3 Compliance CoP, please contact the Joint Spectrum Center at: [email protected]





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Spectrum Supportability and E3 Policy and Guidance

Image removed. E3/Spectrum Supportability Policy and Guidance


DoD Policy requires developers of communication-electronics systems, whether spectrum dependent or not, to ensure system electromagnetic compatibility and that they provide a determination of spectrum supportability before assumption of contractual obligations for full scale development, production, or procurement. Early attention to electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) and spectrum issues is particularly critical in spectrum dependent systems, to mitigate risk and to properly address spectrum supportability and electromagnetic compatibility. Failure to consider E3 and/or spectrum early could result in program delays, additional cost or less than full operational capability. There are many resources available to help assist in spectrum certification and planning.

This section provides details and resources on DoD policies in these technical areas and guidance on implementing those policies for the E3 acquisition community. It provides details on procedures to follow during a program life-cycle to ensure systems will have electromagnetic spectrum to use that they will be compatible when fielded.


The requirement to impose E3 control and ensure Spectrum Supportability in the weapons system acquisition cycle is called out in a variety of policy directives and instructions, including the latest issuances of the following:

 CJCSI 3170.01G      Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System, (1 March 2009)
​ CJCSI 5123-01H
​ Charter of the JROC and Implementation of the JCIDS   (31 Aug 2018)
 CJCSM 3170.01C   Operation of the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System, (1 May 2007)
 JCIDS Manual
 Manual For The Operation of The Joint Capabilities Integration and Development  (20180831)
 DoDD 5000.01
 Defense Acquisition System    (12 May 2003)
 ​DoDD 5000.01 Change 2  
​ The Defense Acquisition System (DAS)  (31 Aug 2018)
 DoDI 5000.02
 Operation of the Defense Acquisition System
 ​DODI 5000.02 Change 5   
​ Operation of the DAS  (21 Oct 2019)
 DoDI 3222.03
 DoD Joint Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) Program   (25 Aug 2014)
​ DoDI 3222.03 Change 2    ​ DoD E3 Program   (10 Oct 2017)
 DoDI 4650.01
 Policy for Management and Use of the Electromagnetic Spectrum
​ DoDI 4650.01 Change 1     Policy and Procedures for the Use of the EMS - CHANGE 1  (17 Oct 2017)
 ​EMS SGV
​ EMS Survivability Guidebook Version 2 - July 2020
​ MCEB Documents
​ Describes the DoD spectrum certification system and functions.



Spectrum Supportability (SS) 

Spectrum Supportability is the assurance that the necessary frequencies and bandwidth are available to military systems in order to maintain effective interoperability in the operational Electromagnetic Environment (EME). The assessment of an equipment, or systems as having “spectrum supportability" is based on, as a minimum, receipt of equipment spectrum certification (ESC), reasonable assurance of the availability of sufficient frequencies for operation, Host Nation Approval (HNA), and consideration of EMC.

  • Spectrum Supportability requires Certification by the acquiring service's Spectrum Management Office
  • Consideration of worldwide allocations and Host Nation regulations
  • Consideration of future spectrum plans
  • Feedback early in the development process
  • Collaboration between acquisition and spectrum management community to mitigate risk



DoDI 4650.01(January 9, 2009, Change 1, 7 Oct 2017) Policy and Procedures for Management and Use of the Electromagnetic Spectrum 

DoD Instruction (DoDI) 4650.01 identifies DoD policy that requires that a Spectrum Supportability (SS) determination be performed by the DoD Component that is developing or acquiring spectrum-dependent (S-D) equipment or systems.  This written determination shall be completed with the concurrence of the DoD Component or Component Chief Information Officer (CIO), and state whether there is reasonable assurance of SS.  Efforts to obtain SS should be initiated as early as possible during the Technology Development Phase for spectrum dependent equipment or systems.

DoDI 4650.01 also requires system developers of S-D systems and equipment to identify and mitigate regulatory, technical, and operational SS and E3 risks during the development process. The instruction also requires that the resulting spectrum supportability risk assessment (SSRA) be updated to provide increasing levels of detail as the item's design matures. The SSRA constitutes the basis for milestone decision authority determinations of spectrum supportability and provides increasing levels of detail regarding a system’s regulatory, technical, and operational requirements in Initial, Detailed, and Updated SSRAs.

SSRAs are required to determine and document if adequate spectrum is available to support system operation in DoD, Allied, and Coalition operations. SS and E3 risks and the steps that need to be taken to mitigate the risks are to be identified in the SSRA and provided to the Military Department (MILDEP) Spectrum Management Office (SMO) who will review the SSRA and forward their recommendations to the Service Chief Information Officer (CIO) for approval. A statement on the spectrum supportability of an acquisition is then forwarded to the milestone decision authority (MDA). Program Manager (PMs)/Materiel Developers (MATDEVs) should consult, as early as possible, with their respective MILDEP SMO regarding the application and tailoring of the SSRA, and to ensure that all user requirements are met.

The detail and scope of each SSRA depends upon the system’s entry point into the DAS, the complexity of the system, knowledge of the S-D systems to be acquired or integrated, and the intended operational EME. In general, each PM/MATDEV is required to prepare and submit an SSRA when the acquisition includes or incorporates an S-D system or equipment, including commercial items (CI) and non-developmental items (NDI) that are S-D.



Spectrum Supportability Risk Assessments (SSRAs)  (Specifics - New Page)




DD Form 1494, Request for Equipment Spectrum Certification

  • Purpose:  Ensure DoD equipment and systems are designed to conform to applicable E3 standards, international and national tables of allocated frequency bands, and other frequency guidance
  • Submission reponsibility:  Equipment program office
  • Approval Responsibility:  ESG PWG of the Joint Frequency Panel (JFP)
    • Representatives from each Service
    • Technical Support from the Joint Spectrum Center (JSC)
  • Methodology:  Review technical Characteristics on DD Form 1494 for compliance is a four stage process
    •  Stage 1:  Conceptual - Initial planning complete, including proposed frequency bands
    •  Stage 2:  Experimental - Preliminary design complete, radiation using test equipment  and preliminary models may be required
    •  Stage 3:  Developmental - Major design complete and radiation required for testing
    •  Stage 4:  Operational - Development is complete and final operating constraints or restrictions required to assure compatibility need to be identified


Host Nation Coordination

Spectrum is a national resource to be managed by each country. Granting approval to transmit within a country in consideration of potential interference to local receivers are key issues at the discretion of each host nation.
Use by the DoD of U.S. commercial and military C-E systems in host nations requires coordination and negotiation including approvals and certifications.This means that the US military must request permission to use any EM spectrum dependent equipment within a host country’s borders.

The Host Nation Coordination/Approval process generally runs parallel with certification.  Without a certification, most host nation governments will not consider authorizing the use of military systems. The process is complicated in that some countries (NATO member nations for example) follow set procedures that are predictable; while others will not entertain a request for HNC unless we are requesting a frequency assignment for immediate use.  The latter makes it difficult for a developer to assess what band to use for a given application.  


The Spectrum Supportability Process will be applicable to all equipment or systems that require utilization of the electromagnetic spectrum, and will be composed of:
  • Equipment Spectrum Certification
  • Host Nation Supportability Assessment
  • Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) Assessment.


Global Spectrum Issues


Ligado (formerly LightSquared) was seeking FCC approval to provide a wholesale, nationwide, wireless broadband network integrated with satellite coverage. They intended to deploy a low-power terrestrial nationwide 5G network in the L-Band, adjacent to the Global Positioning System (GPS), a plan the FCC backed on April 20, 2020. The frequency band is next to the primary GPS frequency (L1).  The GPS community was concerned because testing had shown Ligado's ground-based transmissions would overpower the relatively weak GPS L1 signals from space. Although Ligado would operate in its own authorized band, the band is so close to the GPS signals that many GPS devices could pick up the stronger Ligado signals and become overloaded or saturated. FCC said the company had to protect GPS bands from interference, including requiring Ligado to have "significant" 23 MHz guardbands in its own spectrum to separate its transmissions from neighboring satellite GPS operations, as well as limiting the power levels to its base stations and respond to entities that had experienced interference.  There is also concern that millions of existing GPS users could be forced to upgrade their devices and/or accept GPS performance losses to accommodate the new network. 


ITU global standard for international mobile telecommunications

For the last 20 years, ITU has been coordinating efforts of government and industry and private sector in the development of a global broadband multimedia international mobile telecommunication system, known as IMT. Since 2000, the world has seen the introduction of the first family of standards derived from the IMT concept. Since May 2007, there are more than 1 billion IMT-2000 subscribers in the world!

´IMT-Advanced´ provides a global platform on which to build the next generations of mobile services - fast data access, unified messaging and broadband multimedia - in the form of exciting new interactive services.


GPS Modernization with New Civil Signals

A major focus of the GPS modernization program is the addition of new navigation signals to the satellite constellation. The new signals are phasing in incrementally as the Air Force launches new GPS satellites to replace older ones.  There are four GPS signal specifications designed for civilian use. In order of date of introduction, these are: L1 C/AL2CL5 and L1C.[1] L1 C/A is also called the legacy signal and is broadcast by all currently operational satellites. L2C, L5 and L1C are modernized signals, are only broadcast by newer satellites (or not yet at all), and as of January 2021, none are yet considered to be fully operational for civilian use.  Most of the new signals will be of limited use until they are broadcast from 18 to 24 satellites.  In addition, there are restricted signals with published frequencies and chip rates but encrypted coding intended to be used only by authorized parties.



Roles and Responsibilities



2021 Spectrum Repurposing Report  (

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Spectrum and Electromagnetics 101

Spectrum1.jpg

Spectrum and Electromagnetics 101

This section contains background and basic educational information on Spectrum Supportability (SS) and electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) issues, some introductory technical material on each and the importance of considering each early in the development and acquisition of systems.  These resources provide acquisition professionals an overview of the technical aspects of spectrum supportability and E3 considerations in military weapons system procurement.

Program management must address SS and E3 throughout the system life cycle when developing an electronic system that will operate compatibly in its fielded environment and must ensure that EMC and SS are designed into the system.  Numerous DoD agencies and organizations can assist the program office with E3 matters.


Definitions

  • Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3):   The impact of the electromagnetic environment upon the operational capability of military forces, equipment, systems, and platforms. Also called E3. (JP 3-13.1).  [From: Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms,  (August 2021)]
  • Electromagnetic Compatibility:  The ability of systems, equipment, and devices that use the electromagnetic spectrum to operate in their intended environments without causing or suffering unacceptable or unintentional degradation because of electromagnetic radiation or response. Also called EMC. [From: Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms,  (August 2021)]
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum Management:  Planning, coordinating, and managing use of the electromagnetic spectrum through operational, engineering, and administrative procedures.  [From: Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms,  (August 2021)]
  • Spectrum Supportability:  the assessment as to whether the electromagnetic spectrum necessary to support equipment is available for use by the system.  The assessment requires, at a minimum, receipt of equipment spectrum certification, reasonable assurance of the availability of sufficient frequencies for operation from host nations, and a consideration of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC).   [Guidance for these requirements is found in DodiInstruction 4650.01].
  • Objective for E3 Control:  The objective of establishing E3 control requirements in the acquisition process is to ensure that DoD equipment, subsystems, and systems are designed to be self-compatible and operate compatibly in the operational electromagnetic environment.  To be effective, the program manager should establish E3 control requirements early in the acquisition process to ensure compatibility with co-located equipment, subsystems, and equipment, and with the applicable external electromagnetic environment. [excerpt from DAG Guidebook]
  • E3 Testing:  E3 can adversely affect the operational effectiveness of military forces, equipment, systems, and platforms. Today's increasingly complex military EM environment is congested and this is coupled with a reduction of spectrum allocation for exclusive military use. The mix of DoD-developed and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic equipment increases the importance of the need for effectively managing E3 and spectrum usage in the battle space. It is the responsibility of the program manager (PM) to ensure, and the responsibility of the Developmental and Operational Test Agencies (D&OTA) to validate, the readiness of systems to be fielded into this environment. Historically, failure to verify equipment/platform EMC in the item's intended operational electromagnetic environment have caused costly program delays and reduced operational effectiveness. [excerpt from DAG Guidebook]

Fig1.jpg


  
 
ELF Radio Spectrum Microwaves Terahertz   Infrared   Visible   Ultraviolet   X-Rays       Gamma Rays
3-30 Hz SLF*: 30-300 Hz 300 GHz -300 MHz 300 GHz-3 THz   Far Infrared: 300 GHz-30 THz   790 to 405 THz   30 PHz - 790 THz
30 PHz-30 EHz     More than 10 EHz
ULF*: 300-3000 Hz
  Mid-Infrared: 30-120 THz   8 × 1014 to 3 × 1016 Hz
VLF*: 3-30 kHz
  Near-Infrared: 120-400 THz
LF*: 30-300 kHz
MF*: 300-3000 kHz
HF*: 3-30 MHz
VHF*: 30-300 MHz
UHF*: 300-3000 MHz
SHF*: 3-30 GHz
EHF*: 30-300 GHz

* Super Low Frequency (SLF)   Ultra-Low Frequency (ULF)  Very-Low Frequency (VLF)  Low Frequency (LF)   Medium Frequency (MF)   High Frequency (HF)   Very-High Frequency (VHF)   Ultra-High Frequency (UHF)

  Super-High Frequency (SHF)   Extremely-High Frequency (EHF)   ExaHertz (EHz)



The types of electromagnetic radiation are broadly classified into the following classes:

  • Gamma radiation penetrating EM radiation arising from the radioactive decay of the atomic nuclei. It consists of the shortest wavelength EM waves thereby imparting the highest photon energy
  • X-ray radiation: a high energy EM wave with a very short wavelength that is able to penetrate and pass through many materials such as clothing, body tissue, and internal organs.
  • Ultraviolet radiationa band of the EM spectrum with wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than visible light but longer than X-rays.
  • Visible radiation:  a form of EM radiation that is visible to most human eyes
  • Infrared radiation known as Infrared and is a region of the EM radiation spectrum where wavelengths range from about 700 nanometers (nm) to 1 millimeter (mm). 
  • Terahertz (THz) radiation: sometimes known as the submillimeter band, consists of EM waves from 0.1 - 30 THz. One THz is 1012 Hz or 1000 GHz. Wavelengths of radiation in the terahertz band range from 1 mm to 0.1 mm
  • Microwave radiationEM radiation between radio waves having frequencies between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz) and wavelengths between 1 meter and 1 millimeter.
  • Radio wavesare a type of EM radiation with wavelengths in the EM spectrum longer than infrared light and is used in communications like mobile phones, radio and television 


What is a decibel or dB?

The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit that indicates the ratio of a physical quantity (usually power or intensity) relative to a specified or implied reference level. A ratio in decibels is ten times the logarithm to base 10 of the ratio of two power quantities. The decibel is often used to express power or amplitude ratios (gains), in preference to arithmetic ratios or percentages. One advantage is that the total decibel gain of a series of components (e.g., amplifiers) can be calculated simply by summing the decibel gains of the individual components. Similarly, in telecommunications, decibels denote signal gain or loss from a transmitter to a receiver through some medium (free space, waveguide, coax, fiber optics, etc.) using a link budget. The decibel unit can also be combined with a suffix to create an absolute unit of electric power. For example, it can be combined with "m" for "milliwatt" to produce the "dBm". 0 dBm equals one milliwatt, and 1 dBm is one decibel greater (about 1.259 mW).




The following table describes some of the Image removed.various modulation types with the principle advantages, disadvantages and uses.

Kind Description/Advantages Disadvantages Uses
Amplitude Modulation - double side band plus carrier (AM) The amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal. Simplifies receiver; preserves the waveform of message.  Analog. Doubles bandwidth occupancy; Requires extra signal power. Radio broadcasting, telephony, telegraphy, telemetering.
Single-sideband, suppressed carrier (SSB) Saves bandwidth occupancy; Conserves signal power. SSB transmitters are generally designed to minimize the amplitude of the carrier signal and when the carrier is removed from the transmitted signal, it is called suppressed-carrier SSB. Analog. Unable to handle relatively low frequencies; adds inherent delay; waveform of wanted message is not preserved. Long distance telephony and telegraphy over land and submarine cables.  History - SSB entered commercial service on January 7, 1927 on a transatlantic radiotelephone circuit between New York and London England. The high power SSB transmitters were located at Rocky Point, New York and Rugby, England. The receivers were located in extremely quiet areas.

​Amplitude Shift Keying
A form of AM that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave - the binary symbol 1 is represented by transmitting a fixed-amplitude carrier wave and fixed frequency for a bit duration of T seconds. If the signal value is 1 then the carrier signal will be transmitted; otherwise, a signal value of 0 will be transmitted.
ASK is sensitive to atmospheric noise, distortions, propagation conditions. Can be transmitted over fiber optic cable.
ASK was used at radio frequencies to transmit Morse code and was referred to as continuous wave (CW) operation
Angle Modulation - Narrow band Constant signal power Extra bandwidth occupancy Telecommunications, particularly broad-band carrier and TV over microwave radi
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Electromagnetic Environmental Effects E3
Electromagnetic Environmental Effects E3
Image removed.

Although technical risk is inherent in any electronic system acquisition, planning can provide a means of minimizing and reducing that risk.  In order to conduct safe, effective military operations (especially Joint military exercises), on-scene commanders must have assurance that weapons systems will function properly in a harsh electromagnetic (EM) environment. Operational forces must also have a methodology to control RF exposure to personnel and weapons systems, as well as ways to request assistance for discovered EMI problems.


Military001.jpg

In this section, information on electromagnetic effects that make up the definition of E3 is provided:  electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), electromagnetic interference (EMI), electromagnetic pulse (EMP), electromagnetic vulnerability (EMV), lightning, radiation hazards (RADHAZ), precipitation static (P-Static), and electrostatic discharge (ESD). Consideration of these various aspects of E3 could be crucial to fielding a system that is electromagnetically compatible with itself, surrounding systems, and the operational electromagnetic environment. While EMI, including interference caused by spectrum management problems, can cause catastrophic failures, the majority of interference problems render systems only partially effective reducing operational readiness and increasing costs. It must be keep in mind that reduced equipment operation is only a nuisance in peace time training exercises; however, operational reduction in a wartime scenario can result in possible catastrophe because of the complacency of addressing interference problems.





EMC Analysis




- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Commercial, Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 

   COTS is defined as "commercial items that require no unique government modifications or maintenance over the life cycle of the product to meet the needs of the procuring agency."


EMC concerns must be addressed for Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) equipment. A thorough evaluation of the application of COTS equipment and the intended operational electromagnetic environment (EM) is more critical now as its use proliferates on military platforms.

The use of COTS (also known as Commercial Items/Non-Developmental Items [CI/NDI]) presents a dilemma between the need for imposing Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) controls and the desire to take advantage of existing designs, which may have unknown or undesirable EMI characteristics. Blindly using COTS equipment carries a risk of incompatibilities onboard a military platform. To mitigate the risks, a suitability assessment is required to evaluate the installation environment and the equipment’s EMI characteristics through a review of existing data, review of equipment design, or limited testing.

The use of CI/NDI allows the military to take advantage of technological advances, cost savings and rapid procurement stemming from the competitive pressures of the commercial marketplace as well as developments in other DoD or government agencies. The use of these items can minimize or eliminate the need for costly, time-consuming, government-sponsored research and development programs. In addition to providing an overview of how to address E3/SS CI/NDI related issues in a system acquisition, we will provide a general overview of major commercial EMC standards and how they compare with each other and MIL-STD-461 (the DoD’s primary equipment level EMI requirement document). An understanding of the relationship between the commercial EMC standards and EMC environments is essential to assessing the risk that the equipment will operate correctly in its intended EM environment. Understanding these issues and how to deal with them offers new and unique challenges to the acquisition community.

INCIDENTILY, WHAT IS A "CI"?

  • A Commercial Item (CI) is used for non-Government purposes and has:
  • Been sold, leased, or licensed to the general public
  • Been offered for sale, lease, or license to the general public
  • Evolved through advances in technology or performance and is not yet available in the commercial marketplace, but will be in time to satisfy the delivery requirements of a Government solicitation.

THEN, WHAT IS A "NDI"?

Non-Developmental Items (NDI) have been previously developed and used for Government purposes by another DoD /Federal Agency, State or local Government, or a foreign Government that has a mutual defense cooperation agreement with the US.


A BIT OF HISTORY

CI/NDI is another part of Secretary Perry’s acquisition reform initiative from the late 1980’s. For some acquisition programs, the procurement of CI items and NDI is a cost-effective approach to meeting the mission needs.


Major COTS issues are:

  • CI/NDI systems create some of the biggest issues in both the spectrum management and E3 communities. Because these systems are often not designed for the military electromagnetic environments, they may malfunction or cause other operational problems.
  • Another issue is the militarization of commercial equipment.  Modifications which alter the radio characteristics of commercial equipment can create coordination difficulty.  In many cases, the systems are limited to a non-interference basis and may face severe restrictions.

In today's fast track” acquisition, the use of COTS is seen as a way to field systems quickly and cheaply.

  • Research and development is performed by an independent agency and the government saves money. Unfortunately, the primary market for these systems is the commercial sector. When the government buys COTS equipment, we cannot always support it in spectrum authorized for use by the military.
  • There is a sub-set of COTS known as NON-LICENSED devices. These are low power devices which are approved by the FCC for use in the US&P. Some examples are: Garage door openers, baby monitors, cordless phones, and remote controlled cars or planes.


COTS AND THE MILITARY

What’s the problem with commercial equipment in the military operational electromagnetic environment? Commercial items are simply not designed to operate in such a complex and harsh EME. They aren’t designed to minimize emissions across the frequency band and they aren’t designed to be “hardened” against all the powerful radiation encountered in a battlespace.

The most significant source of these problems fall in the categories of design and application. In the past, the commercial industry has used standards that are applicable to commercial equipment. The typical commercial designers have recognized for years that the military has designed and built most of their own systems and commercial opportunities had been few. But now the trend is to fulfill requirements with COTS equipment which leads into the usage problem areas.

In addition, there are a variety of spectrum management-related problems associated with the use of commercial equipment for military purposes. A COTS item, even though approved by the FCC for COMMERCIAL use, does not exempt that item from going through the military spectrum management process. Some program managers feel that they don’t have to apply spectrum allocation or the equipment they ordered operating in an authorized band but that is okay because they are achieving their goals for equipment to perform the mission...OR HAVE THEY?

Here’s some examples (shipboard) that some of you may be familiar with.

  • Battle Group Cellular Phone - Due to the commercial applications of this technology, the Navy is restricted from using BG cellular within 50 miles of US shore lines.
  • Challenge Athena - Challenge Athena allows for at-sea imagery and intelligence transmission, data-base access, video-teleconferencing, multi-line CONUS telephone connectivity, and telemedicine. The system uses a leased 36 MHz transponder from COMSAT with a global beam to eliminate the need to track the ship which also allows any unit similarly equipped within the satellite footprint to receive the same feed.
  • INMARSAT
  • Other receivers

...AND WHY ARE THESE SYSTEMS A PROBLEM? They weren’t designed for the EME...It's that simple, really...


NOTICE:  CLASS ON COTS!...





Joint Spectrum Center (JSC) Annapolis, Maryland




For questions regarding any of the information located in the Spectrum and E3 Compliance CoP, please contact the Joint Spectrum Center at: [email protected]




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Spectrum Supportability Risk Assessments (SSRA)

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Course Abbr Name

SSRA Overview

Course Long Title

Spectrum Supportability Risk Assessment (SSRA) Overview

Purpose

Course introduces students to the development of SSRAs, required by DoDI 4650.01, to determine and document if adequate spectrum is available to support system operation in DoD, Allied, and Coalition operations. The SSRA constitutes the basis for milestone decision authority (MDA) determinations of spectrum supportability and provides increasing levels of detail regarding a system’s regulatory, technical, and operational requirements.  Course describes: (1) SSRA policy requirements and detailed guidance for development of the SSRA Components:  Regulatory, Technical, Operational, and E3 Assessment. (2) basic standards of DoD Risk Assessment practices. (3)  Details and samples for each Service development of the SSRA components.

Scope/Objective

Students will have a basic understanding of the SSRA requirements and core steps to develop risk assessments for milestone decision authority when performing acquisition of spectrum dependent systems.

Intended Audience

Program Office and Acquisition Management personnel

Prerequisites

Recommended: E3/ SS Awareness for Acquisition Professionals

Security Clearance

Unclassified

Continuous Learning Points (CLPs)

ILT – 2 hours

Virtual Class – 2 hours

Class Material

https://www.dau.edu/sites/default/files/Migrate/cop/e3/DAU%20Sponsored%20Documents/SSRA%20Overview.pdf?Web=1

Class Supplemental Material

https://www.dau.edu/sites/default/files/Migrate/cop/e3/DAU%20Sponsored%20Documents/SSRA_Example%20B1.pdf?Web=1

REGISTER
https://www.dau.edu/sites/default/files/Migrate/cop/e3/Pages/Training_Registration.aspx
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E3 Spectrum Videos Course Trailers

Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) and Spectrum Supportability (SS) Awareness Training

E3/SPECTRUM VIDEOS

OPS Group University



For questions regarding any of the information located in the Spectrum and E3 Compliance CoP, please contact the Joint Spectrum Center at: [email protected]

 



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Documents / Spectrum and E3 Compliance

NIWDC EMSO TT Trifold
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Navy NIWDC EMSO TT Trifold

MIL-STD-461G
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(11 Dec 2015) This standard establishes interface and associated verification requirements for the control of the EMI (emission and susceptiblility) characteristics of electronic, electrical, and electromechanical equipment and subsystems designed or procured for use by activities and agencies of the DoD. Supercedes -461F.

MIL-STD-464D
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(24 Dec 2020) This standard establishes electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) interface requirements and verification criteria for airborne, sea, space, and ground systems, including associated ordnance.

DD FORM 1494
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(Aug 1996) APPLICATION FOR EQUIPMENT FREQUENCY ALLOCATION

Assessing Spectrum Supportability
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(26 Feb 2010) The EM spectrum is a critical enabler of the DONs ability to communicate and operate in a global environment. By Tom Kidd Published,

The Evolution of Spectrum Management - A Technical Framework for DSA Management
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From IEEE Xplore Terry, J.D.  Jensen, C.  Thai, S.  Commun. Syst. Eng., Terry Consultants, Inc, Arlington, VA  The Evolution of Spectrum Management: A Technical Framework for DSA Management http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/login.jsp?url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel5%2F4658210%2F4658211%2F04658284.pdf%3Farnumber%3D4658284&authDecision=-203 *

DoD 3222.3 AFPD33 5
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(26 Sept 2006) Policy and responsibilities for the management and implementation of the DoD E3 Program to ensure mutual EMC and effective E3 control among ground, air, sea, and space-based electronic and electrical systems.

DoDI 8330.01
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(11 December 2019) Incorporating Change 2. DoDD 4630.05 was CANCELLED in May 2014. DODI 8330.01 incorporates and cancels this issuance.

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