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The PM’S Role in Missile Technology Controlhttps://www.dau.edu/library/defense-atl/Lists/Blog/DispForm.aspx?ID=261The PM’S Role in Missile Technology Control2021-11-07T17:00:00Z<div class="ExternalClass88A8C5C66ACC4D24B10E22043702E3C6">The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is an informal political understanding among states that seek to limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology. The MTCR’s mission is to limit the spread of ballistic missiles and other unmanned delivery systems that could be used for chemical, biological, and nuclear attacks. Many may know that the System Program Office (SPO) Program Manager (PM), or equivalent, performs a technical MTCR review of the Letter of Request. This article provides a brief overview of MTCR, how it fits into the Technical Security and Foreign Disclosure process, and the key role of security cooperation community in this endeavor. <h2>MTCR in a Nutshell</h2> The (MTCR) was formed by the Group of Seven, or G-7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States), the prominent industrialized countries in 1987. Initially, the MTCR only covered nuclear weapon delivery systems. They expanded to include weapons of mass destruction (WMD) delivery systems in 1992. It has since grown to 35 members. The MTCR is not a treaty; it is an informal political understanding where members work together to control the export of items that could be used in the delivery of WMDs. The MTCR does this by working closely together to create a common view so each member can enact laws, policies, and other export controls within their country. For example, the United States has passed laws, such as the Arms Export Control Act, that restrict the export of MTCR-controlled items. Each member is free to decide how to enact its own policies, and the decision to export an item to another country is at its sole discretion. They are also bound to consult each other before considering export that has been denied by another partner. This is known as the MTCR regime’s “no-undercut” policy. To manage its mission, MTCR members have compiled a list of systems requiring oversight and control, the <a href="https://mtcr.info/mtcr-annex/" target="_blank">MTCR Annex</a>.<br> <br> This diverse list includes items such as chemicals used to create explosives or propellants, key manufacturing equipment, software that controls guidance and propulsion, as well as a host of other items that may have possible military or dual (military and civilian) uses.<br> It is important to note that while the MTCR controls items used in producing missiles capable of delivering lethal weapons, it is not intended to limit any nations’ space program. Unfortunately, many of the same components used in a space program could also be used in a WMD program. One critical factor is the relationship between the countries exporting MTCR items and those receiving them. A reasonable assurance is needed, through government-to-government agreements, that the controlled item will be used in its intended role and not misused or redirected. <h2>Technical Security and Foreign Disclosure</h2> MTCR is one of the many Technical Security and Foreign Disclosure “pipes” that the United States must clear prior to sharing technologies with a partner. Stakeholders in the technology transfer process must ensure that they only share information that they are cleared to share. Technology transfer and disclosure are parts of the overarching framework of U.S. laws, policy, and export controls put in place to protect classified, controlled unclassified, and other sensitive information. Dual-use and defense-related technology are valuable resources and must be protected while balancing the needs and desires of our partner nations and keeping our industrial base intact. This balance is vital, as there must be a clear U.S. Government benefit for the transfer to be allowed. Partner nation assurances and controls must ensure that the shared information is protected.<br> <br> Decisions on sharing information can be be directed by government-to-government agreements, international policies, or under the Security Assistance (SA) and Security Cooperation (SC) programs, to name just a few. With this overarching view of Technical Security and Foreign Disclosure processes and a working definition of MTCR, we will look at MTCR stakeholders who execute the process and the specific regulatory requirements that govern their efforts. <h2>Security Cooperation Professional’s Role</h2> As stated in the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) <em>Manual 5105.38-M Security Assistance Management Manual</em> (SAMM), the SPO, PM, or equivalent performs a technical MTCR review of the Letter of Request. The PM usually leads an Integrated Product Team (IPT) of engineers, logisticians, test, and other related experts as needed to perform this review. At least one of the team members must be MTCR trained. Team members compare the list of components being transferred on a system sale with the items in the MTCR Annex to determine if any need to be reported.<br> <br> <a href="/cop/iam/Pages/Topics/TSFD%20and%20Export%20Control.aspx" target="_blank"><img alt="See DAU's International Acquisition Management of Practice pages" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Nov-Dec_2021/DefAcqNov-Dec21_article7_image01.jpg" style="border-width:0px;border-style:solid;margin:5px;float:right;width:259px;height:100px;" /></a>Once the review is complete, the reviewer as early as possible in the case development process transmits the list of MTCR-controlled items to the Implementing Agency (IA) point of contact for MTCR. This provides the necessary time for the technology MTCR transfer and disclosure process outlined above while the rest of the Letter of Offer and Acceptance is being worked on by the various program offices. The IA’s MTCR point of contact reviews the list of potential MTCR items and forwards it to the appropriate authorities at DSCA’s Directorate for Security Assistance Weapons Directorate (WPNS). Once the WPNS Directorate performs its review, the list is forwarded on to the Department of State (DoS) Office of Missile, Biological, and Chemical Nonproliferation, for review and approval. When satisfied that the list is complete and agreements and reviews are in place, DoS gives final approval and all of the agencies that submitted information are notified of the approval along with the DSCA Case Writing Division (CWD). During the final Letter of Offer and Acceptance review prior to the offer, WPNS will look for the MTCR approval from State and WPNS. If it is missing, WPNS will return the case back to the CWD and the IA to resolve. This can substantially delay urgent cases.<br> <br> An MTCR review is just one piece of the technology transfer process, yet it is critical. The DoS works with the Department of Defense and a host of other U.S. agencies to limit or restrict missile and UAS proliferation —and works with international organizations to reduce threats (Figure 1). These MTCR assessments give the United States influence in the international community to shape this worldwide effort. They are supported by other efforts such as the Wassenaar Arrangement on export controls for conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies; the Nuclear Suppliers Group for nonproliferation of nuclear weapons through implementation of guidelines for control of nuclear and nuclear-related exports; the Australia Group (AG) for limiting the spread of chemical and biological weapons capabilities; and MTCR plenary meetings.<br> <br> The MTCR review performed at the SPO level, is just one part of the process that fits into the overarching framework of the technology transfer process. When I was an Implementing Agency MTCR point of contact, one of my duties was to review the MTCR assessments received from the SPO or PM. Sometimes, the MTCR assessments had to be sent back for further work because they did not include enough information or missed an important item. The minimum information required includes the Military Articles and Services List number of each controlled item, the MTCR Annex Category and item identifier, the nomenclature of each item, and a detailed description including that of the manufacturer. These common issues highlight why utilizing the IPT is a best practice. While these delays did not cause the case to be offered outside the normal timeline, they did highlight the importance of the secondary review process before MTCR requests are forwarded to DSCA WPNS. It should be noted that during the final review, DSCA WPNS will delay the case from being offered until the MTCR is done correctly.<br> <br> <img alt="U.S./DoD Technology Security and Foreign Disclosure Processes Details" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Nov-Dec_2021/DefAcqNov-Dec21_article7_image02.jpg" style="width:873px;height:600px;" /> <h2>Wrap-up</h2> This article has explored why the MTCR is so important to helping the United States limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology. By now, this statement should be clear and your role in this important process well defined. The SPO knows what components are being sold and what items are MTCR related. Its members are in the best position to make this determination. The next time your IPT is tasked with performing an MTCR assessment, remember how important this step is to the nonproliferation process and in helping keep our nation’s secrets protected and safeguarded by our trusted allies and partners. <hr />Crenshaw is an instructor at the Defense Security Cooperation University (DSCU) in Dayton, Ohio. One course he teaches deals with the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). His prior assignments include the Air Force Security Assistance and Cooperation Directorate (AFSAC), where he worked variously as a case manager, sole source manager, and policy analyst and coordinated MTCR assessments.<br> <br> The author can be contacted at <a class="ak-cke-href" href="mailto:william.a.crenshaw2.civ@mail.mil">william.a.crenshaw2.civ@mail.mil</a>. <hr /> <h5>The views expressed in this article are those of the authors alone and not of the Department of Defense. Reproduction or reposting of articles from Defense Acquisition magazine should credit the authors and the magazine.</h5> <hr /><a href="https://ctt.ac/2zK9A" target="_blank"><img alt="tweet" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Sept-Oct_2021/tweetbutton.jpg" style="width:125px;height:50px;border-width:0px;border-style:solid;" /></a><a href="https://forms.office.com/Pages/ResponsePage.aspx?id=RL4hHDUkv0m8H8ujFxhwWDC96xcKcGtIg37V1pUVabBUNDA1MExJSUJPNkQyVUI5TUs3UjZWUzFIWS4u" target="_blank"><img alt="subscribe" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Sept-Oct_2021/suscribebutton.jpg" style="width:125px;height:50px;border-width:0px;border-style:solid;" /></a></div>string;#/library/defense-atl/blog/Missile-Technology-Control
The PM’S Role in Missile Technology Controlhttps://www.dau.edu/library/defense-atl/Lists/Blog/DispForm.aspx?ID=260The PM’S Role in Missile Technology Control2021-11-07T17:00:00Zhttps://wwwad.dauext.dau.mil/library/defense-atl/PublishingImages/DefAcqNov-Dec21_banner07.jpg, https://www.dau.edu/library/defense-atl/PublishingImages/DefAcqNov-Dec21_banner07.jpg https://wwwad.dauext.dau.mil/library/defense-atl/PublishingImages/DefAcqNov-Dec21_banner07.jpg<div class="ExternalClass0DB148876F6649639BFA8CD4E88BA376">The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is an informal political understanding among states that seek to limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology. The MTCR’s mission is to limit the spread of ballistic missiles and other unmanned delivery systems that could be used for chemical, biological, and nuclear attacks. Many may know that the System Program Office (SPO) Program Manager (PM), or equivalent, performs a technical MTCR review of the Letter of Request. This article provides a brief overview of MTCR, how it fits into the Technical Security and Foreign Disclosure process, and the key role of security cooperation community in this endeavor. <h2>MTCR in a Nutshell</h2> The (MTCR) was formed by the Group of Seven, or G-7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States), the prominent industrialized countries in 1987. Initially, the MTCR only covered nuclear weapon delivery systems. They expanded to include weapons of mass destruction (WMD) delivery systems in 1992. It has since grown to 35 members. The MTCR is not a treaty; it is an informal political understanding where members work together to control the export of items that could be used in the delivery of WMDs. The MTCR does this by working closely together to create a common view so each member can enact laws, policies, and other export controls within their country. For example, the United States has passed laws, such as the Arms Export Control Act, that restrict the export of MTCR-controlled items. Each member is free to decide how to enact its own policies, and the decision to export an item to another country is at its sole discretion. They are also bound to consult each other before considering export that has been denied by another partner. This is known as the MTCR regime’s “no-undercut” policy. To manage its mission, MTCR members have compiled a list of systems requiring oversight and control, the <a href="https://mtcr.info/mtcr-annex/" target="_blank">MTCR Annex</a>.<br> <br> This diverse list includes items such as chemicals used to create explosives or propellants, key manufacturing equipment, software that controls guidance and propulsion, as well as a host of other items that may have possible military or dual (military and civilian) uses.<br> It is important to note that while the MTCR controls items used in producing missiles capable of delivering lethal weapons, it is not intended to limit any nations’ space program. Unfortunately, many of the same components used in a space program could also be used in a WMD program. One critical factor is the relationship between the countries exporting MTCR items and those receiving them. A reasonable assurance is needed, through government-to-government agreements, that the controlled item will be used in its intended role and not misused or redirected. <h2>Technical Security and Foreign Disclosure</h2> MTCR is one of the many Technical Security and Foreign Disclosure “pipes” that the United States must clear prior to sharing technologies with a partner. Stakeholders in the technology transfer process must ensure that they only share information that they are cleared to share. Technology transfer and disclosure are parts of the overarching framework of U.S. laws, policy, and export controls put in place to protect classified, controlled unclassified, and other sensitive information. Dual-use and defense-related technology are valuable resources and must be protected while balancing the needs and desires of our partner nations and keeping our industrial base intact. This balance is vital, as there must be a clear U.S. Government benefit for the transfer to be allowed. Partner nation assurances and controls must ensure that the shared information is protected.<br> <br> Decisions on sharing information can be be directed by government-to-government agreements, international policies, or under the Security Assistance (SA) and Security Cooperation (SC) programs, to name just a few. With this overarching view of Technical Security and Foreign Disclosure processes and a working definition of MTCR, we will look at MTCR stakeholders who execute the process and the specific regulatory requirements that govern their efforts. <h2>Security Cooperation Professional’s Role</h2> As stated in the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) <em>Manual 5105.38-M Security Assistance Management Manual</em> (SAMM), the SPO, PM, or equivalent performs a technical MTCR review of the Letter of Request. The PM usually leads an Integrated Product Team (IPT) of engineers, logisticians, test, and other related experts as needed to perform this review. At least one of the team members must be MTCR trained. Team members compare the list of components being transferred on a system sale with the items in the MTCR Annex to determine if any need to be reported.<br> <br> <a href="/cop/iam/Pages/Topics/TSFD%20and%20Export%20Control.aspx" target="_blank"><img alt="See DAU's International Acquisition Management of Practice pages" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Nov-Dec_2021/DefAcqNov-Dec21_article7_image01.jpg" style="border-width:0px;border-style:solid;margin:5px;float:right;width:259px;height:100px;" /></a>Once the review is complete, the reviewer as early as possible in the case development process transmits the list of MTCR-controlled items to the Implementing Agency (IA) point of contact for MTCR. This provides the necessary time for the technology MTCR transfer and disclosure process outlined above while the rest of the Letter of Offer and Acceptance is being worked on by the various program offices. The IA’s MTCR point of contact reviews the list of potential MTCR items and forwards it to the appropriate authorities at DSCA’s Directorate for Security Assistance Weapons Directorate (WPNS). Once the WPNS Directorate performs its review, the list is forwarded on to the Department of State (DoS) Office of Missile, Biological, and Chemical Nonproliferation, for review and approval. When satisfied that the list is complete and agreements and reviews are in place, DoS gives final approval and all of the agencies that submitted information are notified of the approval along with the DSCA Case Writing Division (CWD). During the final Letter of Offer and Acceptance review prior to the offer, WPNS will look for the MTCR approval from State and WPNS. If it is missing, WPNS will return the case back to the CWD and the IA to resolve. This can substantially delay urgent cases.<br> <br> An MTCR review is just one piece of the technology transfer process, yet it is critical. The DoS works with the Department of Defense and a host of other U.S. agencies to limit or restrict missile and UAS proliferation —and works with international organizations to reduce threats (Figure 1). These MTCR assessments give the United States influence in the international community to shape this worldwide effort. They are supported by other efforts such as the Wassenaar Arrangement on export controls for conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies; the Nuclear Suppliers Group for nonproliferation of nuclear weapons through implementation of guidelines for control of nuclear and nuclear-related exports; the Australia Group (AG) for limiting the spread of chemical and biological weapons capabilities; and MTCR plenary meetings.<br> <br> The MTCR review performed at the SPO level, is just one part of the process that fits into the overarching framework of the technology transfer process. When I was an Implementing Agency MTCR point of contact, one of my duties was to review the MTCR assessments received from the SPO or PM. Sometimes, the MTCR assessments had to be sent back for further work because they did not include enough information or missed an important item. The minimum information required includes the Military Articles and Services List number of each controlled item, the MTCR Annex Category and item identifier, the nomenclature of each item, and a detailed description including that of the manufacturer. These common issues highlight why utilizing the IPT is a best practice. While these delays did not cause the case to be offered outside the normal timeline, they did highlight the importance of the secondary review process before MTCR requests are forwarded to DSCA WPNS. It should be noted that during the final review, DSCA WPNS will delay the case from being offered until the MTCR is done correctly.<br> <br> <img alt="U.S./DoD Technology Security and Foreign Disclosure Processes Details" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Nov-Dec_2021/DefAcqNov-Dec21_article7_image02.jpg" style="width:873px;height:600px;" /> <h2>Wrap-up</h2> This article has explored why the MTCR is so important to helping the United States limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology. By now, this statement should be clear and your role in this important process well defined. The SPO knows what components are being sold and what items are MTCR related. Its members are in the best position to make this determination. The next time your IPT is tasked with performing an MTCR assessment, remember how important this step is to the nonproliferation process and in helping keep our nation’s secrets protected and safeguarded by our trusted allies and partners. <hr />Crenshaw is an instructor at the Defense Security Cooperation University (DSCU) in Dayton, Ohio. One course he teaches deals with the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). His prior assignments include the Air Force Security Assistance and Cooperation Directorate (AFSAC), where he worked variously as a case manager, sole source manager, and policy analyst and coordinated MTCR assessments.<br> <br> The author can be contacted at <a class="ak-cke-href" href="mailto:william.a.crenshaw2.civ@mail.mil">william.a.crenshaw2.civ@mail.mil</a>. <hr /> <h5>The views expressed in this article are those of the authors alone and not of the Department of Defense. Reproduction or reposting of articles from Defense Acquisition magazine should credit the authors and the magazine.</h5> <hr /><a href="https://ctt.ac/2zK9A" target="_blank"><img alt="tweet" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Sept-Oct_2021/tweetbutton.jpg" style="width:125px;height:50px;" /></a><a href="https://forms.office.com/Pages/ResponsePage.aspx?id=RL4hHDUkv0m8H8ujFxhwWDC96xcKcGtIg37V1pUVabBUNDA1MExJSUJPNkQyVUI5TUs3UjZWUzFIWS4u" target="_blank"><img alt="subscribe" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Sept-Oct_2021/suscribebutton.jpg" style="width:125px;height:50px;border-width:0px;border-style:solid;" /></a></div>string;#/library/defense-atl/blog/Missile-Technology-Control
How Executive Coaching Gives Acquisition Leaders a Decisive Edgehttps://www.dau.edu/library/defense-atl/Lists/Blog/DispForm.aspx?ID=259How Executive Coaching Gives Acquisition Leaders a Decisive Edge2021-11-06T16:00:00Zhttps://wwwad.dauext.dau.mil/library/defense-atl/PublishingImages/DefAcqNov-Dec21_banner06.jpg, https://www.dau.edu/library/defense-atl/PublishingImages/DefAcqNov-Dec21_banner06.jpg https://wwwad.dauext.dau.mil/library/defense-atl/PublishingImages/DefAcqNov-Dec21_banner06.jpg<div class="ExternalClassF49902E021744C029E63510619568D37">Today’s acquisition leaders operate in an environment of unprecedented volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA).<br> <br> The urgent need to innovate and deliver Warfighter capability to outpace peer competitors faces several wicked challenges. These include sustainment of a backlog of aging systems, the rapid advancement of technology, digital transformation, an increasingly complex budget environment, and a generational shift in the acquisition workforce.<br> <br> To address these challenges, the Department of Defense turns to its highest-performing acquisition professionals to lead its acquisition programs, research and development commands, engineering centers, and field activities. Naturally, these high-performing individuals have proven their technical acumen and leadership potential in previous roles. Yet, the thinking and skills that made these high performers great team leads and functional experts may not suffice when leading a major acquisition enterprise. To support this critical leadership transition, organizations are increasingly leveraging executive coaching.<br> In the business world, executive coaching has evolved over the years from fixing the behaviors of flawed but capable leaders to a powerful solution for boosting the performance of top leadership talent. To provide this same decisive edge to Defense acquisition leadership, at the urging of then Under Secretary for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics John Young, DAU launched an initiative a dozen years ago to train and qualify a cadre of proven acquisition practitioners as executive coaches. Young gave much credit to executive coaching for his professional success. With his support, DAU in 2009 established a rigorous executive coaching training program. Since 2009, the program has provided executive coaching services to more than 500 Defense acquisition leaders. Today, DAU has a cadre of 55 qualified and active executive coaches available to support the senior leadership of the acquisition workforce.<br> <br> DAU executive coaching can be an efficient way for acquisition organizations to invest in their leaders. Executive coaching does not rely on the intensive and intrusive data gathering, analysis, and reporting associated with support provided by senior staffs or traditional consulting relationships. Rather, executive coaching pairs a high-performing leader with a trained executive coach in a purposeful relationship that centers on one-on-one focused coaching sessions that occur every two to four weeks over a 9- to 12-month period. Through intensive conversations during these sessions, the client and coach execute a deliberate process intended to generate momentum toward achieving extraordinary mission results and enduring improvement of the client’s executive leadership skills.<br> <br> Importantly, as in the business world, DAU executive coaching is not about fixing underperforming or struggling leaders. Ideally, DAU matches executive coaches with already high-performing clients who are seeking to enhance their skills and accelerate results. The following paragraphs reflect on one such relationship and draw on the experiences of an Army program manager, Dennis Teefy (Project Director for Sensors – Aerial Intelligence—PD SAI), and his DAU executive coach, Chris Robinson, the authors of this article. Their executive coaching relationship occurred from April 2020 to April 2021. As described below, insights distilled from their experience emphasize four key ways that executive coaching brings value and provides acquisition leaders a decisive edge.<br> <br> <img alt="Soldiers integrate Aerial Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Sensors onto the MQ-1C Gray Eagle. Source: Photo by LTC Melvin T. Mitchell, U.S. Army" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Nov-Dec_2021/DefAcqNov-Dec21_article6_image01.jpg" style="width:500px;height:296px;" /> <h6>Soldiers integrate Aerial Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Sensors onto the MQ-1C Gray Eagle.<br> Source: Photo by LTC Melvin T. Mitchell, U.S. Army</h6> <hr /> <h2>Four Key Ways to Benefit</h2> <br> <strong>1. Stimulate your thinking</strong><br> Executive coaching is a provocative process that strives to stimulate innovation. The executive coach’s job is not to make decisions for or provide ideas to the leader but is to help the leader organically achieve their own breakthroughs. Consequently, a good executive coach focuses on the client’s thinking. While DAU executive coaches generally have extensive experience as acquisition professionals, and that experience may apply from time to time during the coaching relationship, the coach is not there to be a consultant or mentor. Rather, an effective coach will listen intently as the client talks through key leadership challenges and shares ideas. While listening in tune with the client, the coach will recognize opportunities to provoke the client’s thinking by asking probing questions. This questioning helps the client—who knows the complexities of their situation the best—to unlock their own solutions.<br> Before taking Command of PD SAI, Teefy spent four years as a deputy in a different Program Management Office. He understood that the difference in the two roles is significant since a deputy is generally responsible for the tactical execution of the program while the program manager focuses on the organization’s strategic direction. One of his main concerns was to develop his ability to switch his mindset from thinking tactically to thinking strategically. It would have been easy to fall into the comforts of his previous role, but through conversations and exercises with his executive coach, he accelerated his shift to the more strategic mindset required of his new role. Critically, his coach filled the role of an objective thinking partner to help him work through issues and challenge his ideas.<br> <br> Strategic decisions that are in the best interest of the Army and the mission are not always popular, especially when they challenge the status quo. As Teefy laid out a vision for the future of PD SAI, his coach was available to provide feedback on thoughts and ideas in their rawest form before introducing those ideas to trusted members of the PD SAI leadership team. This process had the added benefit of allowing Teefy to optimize his leadership team’s time as he was not monopolizing that time with his personal thought exercises.<br> <br> <strong>2. Formulate an extraordinary future</strong><br> An executive coach works to help expand a leader’s thinking and draw out creativity and does so in the context of a purposeful process that drives the client to think beyond business as usual. Central to this process is motivating the client to consider and articulate truly challenging goals that will deliver exceptional outcomes. “What would a really fantastic result look like for your organization?” “Given your organization’s mission, what is your extraordinary, vice predictable, future?” The client’s thinking around these questions provides the cornerstone for specific breakthroughs, strategies, and catalytic actions around which their organization can unite.<br> <br> For PD SAI, the development of the extraordinary future was critical. The program office was at a pivotal point as an organization. The Army’s Aerial Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance mission focus was changing from the Counter Terrorism/Counter Insurgency fight to the near-peer fight and Multi-Domain Operations. There were challenging questions about how to communicate and lead the program office though this change.<br> <br> Teefy used several coaching sessions to think through the key components of a clear set of goals and purposeful action plan. Gradually, he refined his thinking and began to formulate an extraordinary future that captured a clear mission focus. Through successive coaching sessions and feedback from his leadership team and stakeholders, he synthesized and codified three major lines of effort—Future Capability Focus, Acquisition Discipline, and Model Program Office—in a memorandum that provided each individual and team with specific strategies and major muscle movements to guide professional development and align organizational processes. Teefy distributed the PD SAI extraordinary future memo to the PMO and key stakeholders. PD SAI leadership now assesses all program office activities against the three major lines of effort. <hr /> <blockquote> <p>DAU EXECUTIVE COACHING CAN BE AN EFFICIENT WAY FOR ACQUISITION ORGANIZATIONS TO INVEST IN THEIR LEADERS.</p> </blockquote> <hr /><br> <br> <strong>3. Elevate your self-awareness</strong><br> Strong leaders are always open to candid feedback. A good executive coach, therefore, will help a client gain a deeper understanding of their strengths and weaknesses in a way that is actionable and that directly supports the client in achieving exceptional results. One critical component is to provide a safe and trusting environment to candidly discuss and reflect on how others perceive the client. Toward this end, the DAU coaching process supports improved self-awareness through an executive feedback process in which the executive coach interviews the client’s bosses, subordinates, peers, and stakeholders. This process is highly effective at revealing key blind spots and unrecognized strengths that can be game changers for the client. Once uncovered, the client and coach then work together to transform these insights into improvement actions that become integral to achieving the client’s extraordinary future.<br> <br> For his executive feedback, Teefy worked with his coach to develop a unique set of questions for interviews with his designated list of superiors, subordinates, peers, and stakeholders. He had been lucky to participate in recurring, survey-based, 360-degree evaluations involving those who worked around him throughout his career, an experience that provided valuable insight and improved self-awareness. However, DAU’s highly focused, interview-based, approach to soliciting feedback provided two key benefits that surveys did not. First, the probing nature of the direct interviews allowed his coach to gather specific fine-tuning recommendations that he could immediately implement to modify his behaviors in key situations. The second benefit was that his coach was able to gain deeper insight into his key strengths and weakness through the perspective of others, allowing his coach to adjust the overall coaching approach. For example, feedback suggested that Teefy’s approachability might sometimes be an overdone strength and that he should balance it with more “command presence.” As a result, in subsequent coaching sessions he and his coach spent time discussing various strategies for elevating his command presence without undermining his approachability.<br> <br> <strong><img alt="a pencil drawing a line for people to walk on" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Nov-Dec_2021/DefAcqNov-Dec21_article6_image02.jpg" style="margin:5px;float:left;width:300px;height:302px;" />4. Accelerate action and alignment</strong><br> Identifying solutions, articulating ambitious goals, and defining pathways to improvement are difficult enough. As discussed above, a good coach will help the client tap their own thinking and creativity to define these pathways. However, this is not enough. An executive coach must also be there to hold the client accountable for moving out smartly along the pathway. An executive coach should be an effective “nudge master” and tactfully, but firmly, challenge the client to keep their commitments, act on their insights, and integrate their vision and action plan into their organization’s battle rhythm. A coach should be patient, but not too patient. An effective coach will learn how the client prefers to be held accountable, so the nudging is in harmony with the client’s personal style and focused on what is most important to the client. Ultimately, the coach, like the client, focuses on results, so accountability is a central ingredient to a successful coaching relationship.<br> <br> As the coaching process progressed, Teefy’s coach regularly challenged him on how he intended to put the PD SAI’s extraordinary future into practice and how he would know that he and his team were making progress. Consequently, he began using the extraordinary future and its three lines of effort as a baseline for PD SAI’s everyday activities. As a result, individual employee objectives are now aligned to the tenets identified in the extraordinary future memo, with PD SAI leadership evaluating all program office actions against the extraordinary future objectives. Furthermore, all PMO town hall sessions, strategic communication efforts, accomplishments, and small wins are connected back to the lines of effort codified in the extraordinary future memo.<br> <br> For PD SAI, the executive coaching process had the added benefit of providing a channel for easy access to broader DAU mission-assistance capabilities. It was clear to Teefy that ready access to these capabilities could help accelerate implementation of the PD SAI extraordinary future.<br> <br> Upon joining PD SAI, he had identified two areas for immediate focus. His personal philosophy on program management is to focus on risk management because risk is the only thing that we can truly manage. He also strongly believes that acquisition is a team sport, and that stakeholder management is critical to the success of any program. Thus, both risk management and stakeholder management became key enablers to the lines of effort in the PD SAI extraordinary future. To accelerate “raising the bar” in these areas, he worked with his coach to bring in experts from DAU to conduct team workshops focused on risk and stakeholder management. These workshops resulted in actionable plans to work toward closing program office gaps. The PD SAI leadership team now reports out quarterly on progress in executing these plans and any necessary course corrections. <hr /> <h2>Conclusion</h2> In times when we are always evaluating business practices and efficiencies, it is difficult to put a monetary value on executive coaching. In today’s VUCA environment, it is difficult to quantify the value of better decisions, focused organizational change efforts, and professional growth and improvement. Despite the challenges of measuring the exact impact of coaching, there is convincing evidence, according to the International Coach Federation, that the return on investment (ROI) can be substantial (see <a href="https://centerforexecutivecoaching.com/articles/simple-easy-way-justify-roi-executive-coaching/" target="_blank">here</a>).<br> <br> For Dennis Teefy, the value of the executive coaching experience was not obvious until it became obvious. PD SAI most likely would have continued its history of success without his participation in executive coaching. It is difficult to prove otherwise. Nevertheless, he strongly believes that access to a confidant who challenged and sharpened his/ thinking along with establishment of the PD SAI extraordinary future, his own improved self-awareness, the new focus on action and accountability, and ready access to DAU’s expert resources all made participating in the executive coaching program one of his smartest choices since taking command of the program office. <hr /> <h2>Getting Started With the Right Coach</h2> If you are considering an executive coach, you might be inclined to search for a coach who has a background similar to your own. As a potential coaching client, you should understand that the most crucial factor is not the coach’s ability to give you advice but their ability to get you to think. In a coaching relationship, chemistry trumps similarity in career experience. It does not matter if the coach was ever a program manager, supported the same military branch, or held command in the same commodity.<br> <br> While similar career experience may help with chemistry, it is more important to look for a coach who has accomplishments in general and a personality that meshes well with yours. There is a greater chance that the coaching relationship will not be as effective if forced instead of natural. As a prospective coaching client, you should take the time to have honest conversations with prospective coaches. Critically, the effectiveness of the executive coaching relationship is based on trust and reliance on judgment-free communication. For me, it was not until my third interview that I found a coach who was in synch with my style and that I was able to communicate with in a seamless manner.<br> <br> —Dennis A. Teefy<br> For additional information, contact the DAU Coaching Champion at <a class="ak-cke-href" href="mailto:ExecutiveCoaching@dau.edu">ExecutiveCoaching@dau.edu</a>. <hr />Teefy is the Project Director for Army Sensors–Aerial Intelligence (SAI) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.<br> <br> Robinson is the acting Associate Dean for Outreach and Mission Assistance for the DAU Capital and Northeast Region at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, and is a DAU-certified executive coach.<br> <br> The authors can be contacted at <a class="ak-cke-href" href="mailto:Dennis.A.Teefy.civ@mail.mil">Dennis.A.Teefy.civ@mail.mil</a> and <a class="ak-cke-href" href="mailto:Christopher.Robinson@dau.edu">Christopher.Robinson@dau.edu</a>. <hr /> <h5>The views expressed in this article are those of the authors alone and not the Department of Defense. Reproduction or reposting of articles from Defense Acquisition magazine should credit the authors and the magazine.</h5> <hr /><a href="https://ctt.ac/Ja38C" target="_blank"><img alt="tweet" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Sept-Oct_2021/tweetbutton.jpg" style="width:125px;height:50px;border-width:0px;border-style:solid;" /></a><a href="https://forms.office.com/Pages/ResponsePage.aspx?id=RL4hHDUkv0m8H8ujFxhwWDC96xcKcGtIg37V1pUVabBUNDA1MExJSUJPNkQyVUI5TUs3UjZWUzFIWS4u" target="_blank"><img alt="subscribe" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Sept-Oct_2021/suscribebutton.jpg" style="border-width:0px;border-style:solid;width:125px;height:50px;" /></a></div>string;#/library/defense-atl/blog/Executive-Coaching
Ten Powerful Enablers of Functional Area Governance in the Defense Acquisition Workforcehttps://www.dau.edu/library/defense-atl/Lists/Blog/DispForm.aspx?ID=258Ten Powerful Enablers of Functional Area Governance in the Defense Acquisition Workforce2021-11-05T16:00:00Zhttps://wwwad.dauext.dau.mil/library/defense-atl/PublishingImages/DefAcqNov-Dec21_banner05.jpg, https://www.dau.edu/library/defense-atl/PublishingImages/DefAcqNov-Dec21_banner05.jpg https://wwwad.dauext.dau.mil/library/defense-atl/PublishingImages/DefAcqNov-Dec21_banner05.jpg<div class="ExternalClassEC4B508B81FB44BC88B3E529858CBC84"><br> The ability to design, develop, field, and sustain reliable, maintainable, available, supportable, and affordable weapon systems is nothing less than a national strategic imperative. This in turn is possible only if members of the Defense Acquisition Workforce possess the needed knowledge, understanding, expertise, leadership, motivation, values, and wisdom. While many of these traits are innate to individuals, workforce professional development—particularly that which is derived from education training, experience, mentoring, and coaching—is also a key enabler for achieving desired defense acquisition and sustainment outcomes.<br> <br> This is perhaps best conveyed in a single sentence from Department of Defense Instruction (DoDI) 5000.66 Defense Acquisition Workforce Education, Training, Experience, and Career Development, which simply states that “it is DoD policy that the Acquisition Workforce [AWF] Program support a professional, agile, and high performing military and civilian AWF that meets uniform eligibility criteria, makes smart business decisions, acts in an ethical manner, and delivers timely and affordable capabilities to the Warfighter.”<br> <br> <img alt="clockwork gears" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Nov-Dec_2021/DefAcqNov-Dec21_article5_image01.jpg" style="width:500px;height:190px;" /><br> <br> The statutory requirements in 10 United States Code Chapter 87: Defense Acquisition Workforce ultimately undergird both policy and professional development requirements at all levels, providing ample rationale as to why this matters and how this can be achieved. The requirements provide that: <ul> <li>“The Secretary of Defense shall establish policies and procedures for the effective management (including accession, education, training, and career development) of persons serving in acquisition positions in the Department of Defense.” (10 U.S. Code §1701)</li> <li>“The Department of Defense (shall) develop and manage a highly skilled professional acquisition workforce” and “The Secretary of Defense shall implement a certification program to provide for a professional certification requirement for all members of the acquisition workforce.” (10 U.S. Code §1701a)</li> <li>“The Secretary of Defense shall designate in regulations those positions in the Department of Defense that are acquisition positions for purposes of this chapter.” (10 U.S. Code §1721)</li> <li>“The Secretary of Defense, acting through the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment, shall ensure that an appropriate career path for civilian and military personnel who wish to pursue careers in acquisition is identified for each acquisition workforce career field in terms of the education, training, experience, and assignments necessary for career progression of civilians and members of the armed forces to the most senior acquisition positions.” (10 U.S. Code §1722)</li> <li>“Policies established and guidance issued [by the Secretary of Defense, acting through the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Sustainment] … shall ensure…a career path in the acquisition field that attracts the highest quality civilian personnel, from either within or outside the Federal Government.” (10 U.S. Code §1722b)</li> <li>“The Secretary of Defense shall establish education, training, and experience requirements for each acquisition position, based on the level of complexity of duties carried out in the position. In establishing such requirements, the Secretary shall ensure the availability and sufficiency of training in all areas of acquisition, including additional training courses with an emphasis on services contracting, market research strategies (including assessments of local contracting capabilities), long-term sustainment strategies, information technology, and rapid acquisition.” (10 U.S. Code §1723)</li> <li>“The Secretary of Defense shall establish policies and procedures for the establishment and implementation of the education and training programs.” (10 U.S. Code §1741)</li> <li>“For each acquisition workforce career field, the Secretary of Defense shall establish, for the civilian personnel in that career field, defined proficiency standards and technical and nontechnical competencies which shall be used in personnel qualification assessments.” (10 U.S. Code §1765)</li> </ul> <hr /> <blockquote> <p>The more a functional area’s leadership team adheres to these tenets, the likelier it is to succeed.</p> </blockquote> <hr /> <h2>Functional Area Governance</h2> Successful Defense Acquisition Workforce functional area governance, however, is a bit more nuanced. It starts with some basic, overarching principles tied to workforce excellence. I contend that these principles include but are certainly not limited to: <ul> <li><strong>Commitment. </strong>Focus laser-like on developing and empowering a workforce capable of responding quickly in the face of rapidly evolving changes to funding, priorities, technologies, processes, policies, and threats.</li> <li><strong>Competence. </strong>Focus on key technical competencies within each of the acquisition workforce functional areas.</li> <li><strong>Teamwork.</strong> Recognize the criticality of workforce professional development that is multi-disciplinary, cross-functional, and based on an integrated product team.</li> <li><strong>Discernment. </strong>Develop the capability to analyze, evaluate, and implement what they learn. Knowledge and understanding are essential but are ultimately insufficient for ensuring successful acquisition outcomes if not coupled with the ability to apply that knowledge and understanding.</li> <li><strong>Leadership. </strong>Develop and hone leadership skills, by leading change and leading people; developing results-driven, coalitions building business acumen; motivating public service; improving interpersonal skills; clarifying oral and written communication skills; maintaining integrity and honesty; and pursuing continual learning.</li> <li><strong>Life-long learning.</strong> Focus on professional development, continuous skills refresh, and life-long learning at every level from the individual to the department.</li> <li><strong>Embrace “silo-smashing”. </strong>Commit to cross-functional engagement and teaming with other functional areas. Support shared activities in areas such as risk management, software life-cycle management, cybersecurity, obsolescence, diminishing manufacturing sources and material shortages, configuration management, data management, digital engineering, and supply chain risk management.</li> <li><strong>Measure and incentivize desired outcomes. </strong>Use competition, data-driven metrics, and clearly understood incentives to achieve desired acquisition and product support outcomes. If you subscribe to the old adage “what gets measured gets managed,” incentivize what you measure. The same goes for workforce performance. Clear, compelling technical and professional competencies are an integral part of workforce and organizational success.</li> <li><strong>Resource management.</strong> Prioritize well. There rarely are ever enough people, money, or time.</li> <li><strong>Customer and stakeholder focus. </strong>Strive for excellence in both. Communicate, communicate, and most importantly, communicate.</li> </ul> <img alt="clockwork gears" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Nov-Dec_2021/DefAcqNov-Dec21_article5_image02.jpg" style="margin:5px;float:left;width:300px;height:211px;" />While these overarching principles are essential, they are not sufficient, at least not for achieving the needed acquisition outcomes. Powerful foundational tenets must be leveraged to undergird successful functional area governance.<br> I have had the opportunity to support a succession of life-cycle logistics functional area leaders and served in various oversight roles in the life-cycle logistics functional community for nearly two decades. This has afforded me a unique perspective and insight into what works and what doesn’t, as well as which processes contribute to and which may impede success.<br> <br> In the intervening years, I’ve identified, assembled, and gradually refined a list of 10 key, foundational enablers and tenets that I am convinced support successful functional area outcomes. Some of these tenets are strategic in nature; others are more tactical. Some are organizational and structural; others (leadership and style) are more intangible in nature. Regardless, I contend that the more a functional area’s leadership team adheres to these tenets, the likelier it is to succeed. Conversely, the less the team adheres to these tenets, the less likely positive outcomes become. And when those tenets are not adhered to at all, teams often devolve into dysfunction and discord and are very likely not to achieve their professional goals. For clarity, I’ve grouped these 10 tenets into two separate but highly integrated and tightly aligned groups, with five tenets tied to organization and five others tied to leadership. <hr /> <blockquote> <p>The ability to design, develop, field, and sustain affordable, reliable, maintainable, available, supportable, and affordable weapon systems is nothing less than a national strategic imperative.</p> </blockquote> <hr />Starting with leadership-related tenets, the five primary executive core qualifications (ECQs) outlined by the Office of Personnel Management all come into play to a large degree. Available <a href="https://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/senior-executive-service/executive-core-qualifications/" target="_blank">here</a>, they comprise ECQ 1: Leading Change, ECQ 2: Leading People, ECQ 3: Results-Driven, ECQ 4: Business Acumen, and ECQ 5: Building Coalitions. These skills are consistently reflected by successful Defense Acquisition Workforce functional area leaders and executive secretaries, as well as primary Service and agency representatives. This, in turn, contributes to successful functional area governance and workforce members, and, ultimately, successful defense acquisition and sustainment outcomes. The tenets tied to leadership include: <ol> <li>Strong, committed, knowledgeable, actively engaged leadership and team members—with high, outcome-based expectations.</li> <li>Regular, timely communication and outreach in preparation for and in response to key initiatives, including read-aheads, background materials, and an easily accessible web-based information repository.</li> <li>Empowered team members representing key stakeholders, all of whom recognize the value of active involvement and the importance of collaborative and active participation.</li> <li>Tight alignment between the respective functional area leader, Service and agency representatives, DAU functional area faculty, and other key participants.</li> <li>Multi-disciplinary engagement across a range of other acquisition and sustainment functional communities to address key interdisciplinary competencies, training, and related professional development initiatives and issue resolution.</li> </ol> How might this successful functional area leadership manifest itself? Terms like synergy, collaboration, teamwork, communication, and delivering tangible results, products, and outcomes immediately come to mind. Adherence to these tenets also lends itself to potential participants wanting to join the team and actively engage, rather than view meetings as just another activity on an already over-crowded calendar. They often will find themselves gravitating toward enthusiastic leaders who not only lead by example but are themselves active and engaged, articulating a strategic vision while delivering a series of tactical successes. “The proof of the pudding is in the eating” as the old proverb says. Or put another way, “The results begin to speak for themselves!”<br> <br> The second group of key governance tenets that enable functional area success are tied to organization, or structure: a governance framework built on a foundation of teamwork, trust, communication, and collaboration, along with a regularly scheduled battle rhythm of meetings with clearly defined outcomes, a regularly updated charter, and a clear purpose. Rounding out this list of 10 enablers, these five tenets include: <ol> <li>Competency-based, Warfighter-grounded, outcome-focused life-cycle management perspective.</li> <li>Broadly based human capital strategic planning coupled with aligned, integrated, cross-functional workforce membership focused on professional excellence.</li> <li>A well-crafted, well-organized, regularly updated charter that clearly and succinctly articulates both the purpose of the team and the framework by which it operates.</li> <li>A sustained “battle rhythm” that includes regularly scheduled meetings (in our case, quarterly), organized around a clear agenda and well-understood expectations.</li> <li>A broad mix of key functional areas and Directors of Acquisition Career Management, stakeholders representing the Office of the Secretary of Defense, and Service and agency headquarters, Service secretariats, major commands, Joint Staff, other functional communities, and federal agencies with similar workforce considerations such as the Department of Homeland Security, Department of Veterans Affairs, or NASA.</li> </ol> <br> For the life-cycle logistics community, this often means 40 or more attendees. “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder” and arguably so are perceived value, tangible outcomes, and important deliverables that result. In such an environment, administrative products such as workforce competencies, functional area governance documents, and professional development requirements ultimately serve as a roadmap for workforce success rather than just another bureaucratic requirement or an additional check-in-the-block demand on the already scarce time in our overcrowded calendars. The bottom line in my mind is that successful adherence to these tenets leads to successful weapon system product support results. <hr /> <h2><img alt="clockwork gears" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Nov-Dec_2021/DefAcqNov-Dec21_article5_image03.jpg" style="margin:5px;float:left;width:300px;height:476px;" />How Might This Work?</h2> Regarding the life-cycle logistics functional area and the integrated product support element-based competencies identified by DoD in 2019, how can we leverage the products derived from these proven practices? What skills, expertise, abilities, experience, and knowledge might workforce members embrace as they advance in their careers? Start with key requirements outlined in 10 U.S. Code 2337 to “a) maximize competition and make the best possible use of available Department of Defense and industry resources at the system, subsystem, and component levels; and b) maximize value to the Department of Defense by providing the best possible product support outcomes at the lowest operations and support cost.” Building on this solid foundation of proven practices, successful life-cycle logisticians and product support managers continue to grow professionally as they advance in their careers. <ul> <li>They understand and are able to positively affect product support outcomes across a system life cycle, from requirements to system retirement and disposal.</li> <li>They understand and can operate successfully within each of the six Adaptive Acquisition Framework (AAF) pathways.</li> <li>They are cognizant of and understand the interrelationship between the 12 Integrated Product Support Elements, and implications of how decisions made for one element impact each of the others.</li> <li>They can develop and execute product support business case analyses-based product support strategies.</li> <li>They are valued, sought-after core members of a program office team or directly support it.</li> <li>They provide high-impact strategic/senior leadership, including success as a product support manager, assistant program manager for logistics, or senior life-cycle logistician in a program or staff.</li> <li>They recognize that successful product support and sustainment outcomes don’t just happen; they involve getting the requirements right, selecting the appropriate adaptive acquisition pathway(s), and making design for supportability an integral part of acquisition and sustainment strategies.</li> <li>They understand and are able to apply key interdisciplinary technical skills in areas such as software/information technology support, sustainment and life cycle management, reliability, availability, maintainability and supportability analysis, maintenance planning and management and public-private partnering, condition-based maintenance plus, reliability centered maintenance, supply chain management, and provisioning.</li> <li>They are able to resource and fund product support strategies across the 12 Integrated Product Support elements, accompanied by a broad understanding of product support affordability analysis, Operations and Support cost management and should-cost initiatives.</li> <li>They craft and execute outcome-based/performance-based life-cycle product support strategies, product support arrangements, as well as product support metrics and incentives.</li> <li>They understand, apply, and influence key interdisciplinary processes, including configuration management, data management, digital engineering, supply chain risk management, cybersecurity, data analytics, intellectual property, as well as obsolescence, diminishing manufacturing sources, and material shortages and parts management.</li> <li>They understand intuitively and commit to life-cycle management principles. Successful acquisition strategies do not end with deployment of the system. Long-term sustainment is not solely the purview of program or product support managers but is truly a multi-disciplinary, cross-functional endeavor.</li> </ul> Often the desired outcomes discussed in this article are realized and applied through experience or the “school of hard knocks.” Some are gained on-the-job from supervisors, colleagues, coaches, and mentors. Some come from education and training. Some are captured and ensconced in statute, policy, and organizational guidance. Some are conveyed from program, command, Service, agency, or DoD leadership. In any event, competency-based Defense Acquisition Workforce proficiency, enhanced professional development, and improved acquisition outcomes are ultimately rooted in a powerful strategic vision enabled by the fundamental tenets of strong leadership and accelerated by leveraging proven processes of successful functional area governance. <hr />Kobren, the Director of the Logistics and Sustainment Center at DAU, Fort Belvoir, Virginia, has been a certified Department of Defense (DoD) Life Cycle Logistician since 1993. He currently serves as a member of the DoD Life Cycle Logistics Transformation Team and is the newly appointed Executive Secretary of the Life Cycle Logistics Functional Integration Team, a position he also held in 2007-2012. He has supported myriad DoD human capital initiatives including two DoD Logistics Human Capital Strategy development projects, the 2009 DoD Weapon System Acquisition Reform: Product Support Assessment Implementation Team, two Service-level workforce reconstitution teams, and three life-cycle logistics functional area competency reviews since 2008.<br> <br> The author can be contacted at <a class="ak-cke-href" href="mailto:Bill.Kobren@dau.edu">Bill.Kobren@dau.edu</a>. <hr /> <h5>The views expressed in this article are those of the author alone and not the Department of Defense. Reproduction or reposting of articles from Defense Acquisition magazine should credit the authors and the magazine.</h5> <hr /><a href="https://ctt.ac/81Mpe" target="_blank"><img alt="tweet" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Sept-Oct_2021/tweetbutton.jpg" style="width:125px;height:50px;border-width:0px;border-style:solid;" /></a><a href="https://forms.office.com/Pages/ResponsePage.aspx?id=RL4hHDUkv0m8H8ujFxhwWDC96xcKcGtIg37V1pUVabBUNDA1MExJSUJPNkQyVUI5TUs3UjZWUzFIWS4u" target="_blank"><img alt="subscribe" src="/library/defense-atl/DATLFiles/Sept-Oct_2021/suscribebutton.jpg" style="width:125px;height:50px;border-width:0px;border-style:solid;" /></a> <hr /></div>string;#/library/defense-atl/blog/Ten-Powerful-Enablers

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