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Defense Exportability Features (DEF) Program – FY 2021 Call for Nominations Exportability Features (DEF) Program – FY 2021 Call for Nominations2020-05-24T16:00:00Z Interest Areas/P-8 Poseidon.jpg, Interest Areas/P-8 Poseidon.jpg Interest Areas/P-8 Poseidon.jpg<div class="ExternalClass4BCC604C7CC946178607C17EFDF0BC84">The Department of Defense (DoD) <strong><a href="/cop/iam/DAU%20Sponsored%20Documents/A-S%20IC%20DEF%20Candidate%20Request%20Memo%20FY2021%204-15-20.pdf?Web=1">Defense Exportability Features (DEF) program’s Fiscal Year 2021 call for nominations</a></strong> was issued by the Executive Director, International Cooperation, Office of SecDef (Acquisition & Sustainment) (OUSD(A&S)/IC) on April 15, 2020. Nominations from DoD Component acquisition organizations must be submitted to OUSD(A&S)/IC by July 1, 2020 to receive consideration. <h3><strong>Purpose</strong></h3> DoD initially established the DEF program in Fiscal Year 2011 to encourage the DoD Components to build exportability into new and modified systems and equipment with a potential for future export. As noted in the <strong><a href="/cop/iam/DAU%20Sponsored%20Documents/A-S%20IC%20DEF%20Candidate%20Request%20Memo%20FY2021%204-15-20.pdf?Web=1">A&S/IC DEF “Policy Implementation Memorandum and Guidelines”</a></strong> memo signed on April 9, 2015, the purpose of the DEF program is <em>“<strong>to facilitate. through supplemental [Office of SecDef/A&S] funding, the assessment, design, and incorporation of DEF early in the process by DoD program management and contractor teams in order to reduce costs and facilitate foreign sales while also protecting critical program information.”</strong></em> <h3><strong>Examples</strong></h3> There are many DoD acquisition programs that have already benefited from DEF program participation. Success stories so far include: <ul> <li>The U.S. Army’s <strong>Common Infrared Countermeasures (CIRCM)</strong>, which will help protect rotary wing and medium fixed wing aircraft from infrared missile threats. CIRCM is compatible with U.S. Army aviation systems that have been widely sold, including the MH-60 Blackhawk. DEF incorporation in the CIRCM program’s Quick Reaction Change (QRC) prototyping effort will hopefully lead to Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) savings in CIRCM production and sustainment phases for both the U.S. and the allied/friendly nations that acquire the system.</li> <li>The U.S. Navy’s <strong><em>High Altitude Anti-Submarine Warfare Weapon Capability (HAAWC)</em></strong>, which will provide an all-weather, Anti-Submarine Warfare weapon system capable of high altitude launch of the MK-54 torpedo from the P-8A Poseidon. The P-8 is currently being sold to allied and friendly nations through International Cooperative Program (ICP), Foreign Military Sales (FMS) and Direct Commercial Sales (DCS) arrangements. DEF incorporation into HAAWC will substantially increase the potential for future sales, leading to future EOQ savings in HAAWC production and sustainment.</li> <li>The U.S. Air Force’s <strong><em>Three Dimensional Expeditionary Long Range Radar (3DELRR)</em></strong>, which will provide a next-generation transportable 3-D passive electronically scanned array air search radar that will help protect deployed U.S. and allied forces from airborne threats in hostile environments. The previous U.S radar of this type has been widely sold. DEF incorporation in 3DELRR’s design and development phase will help increase the potential for early future sales, leading to future EOQ savings in 3DELRR production and sustainment.</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Evaluation Criteria</strong></h3> FY 2021 DEF nominations submitted by DoD Components will be evaluated based on the overall criteria established in the <strong><a href="/cop/iam/DAU%20Sponsored%20Documents/Defense%20Exportability%20Features%20Policy%20Implementation%20Memorandum%20and%20Guidelines%20USD%20AT%20L%204%209%2015.pdf?Web=1">A&S/IC memo of April 2015</a></strong>. DEF program candidates should be able to demonstrate their alignment with one or more of the following criteria: <ul> <li>Systems for which the U.S. Government has already committed in principle to export to allied/friendly nations.</li> <li>Systems being developed through ACAT I programs. <em>(Note: many ACAT II-IV and non-ACAT programs have been considered in past years on a case-by-case basis);</em></li> <li>Follow-on systems with sales potential whose predecessors have a history of FMS and FMS/DCS hybrid sales;</li> <li>Next generation subsystems used on DoD systems with existing or planned sales ;</li> <li>Systems critical to current and future allied/friendly nation interoperability;</li> <li>Systems currently being considered for acquisition by allied/friendly nations; and</li> <li>Systems that are ready to commence DEF programmatic efforts in the near term.</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Application Process</strong></h3> DoD Component nominations should be submitted at the Flag/General Officer/SES level via formal memorandum per the <strong><a href="/cop/iam/DAU%20Sponsored%20Documents/A-S%20IC%20DEF%20Candidate%20Request%20Memo%20FY2021%204-15-20.pdf?Web=1">A&S/IC memo of April 15, 2020</a></strong>. A&S/IC attached a <strong><a href="/cop/iam/DAU%20Sponsored%20Documents/FY%202021%20DEF%20SOW%20Template%20(Apr%2020).docx?Web=1">DEF Statement of Work (SOW) Template</a></strong> to this memo to facilitate the application process. DoD Components should complete and submit the DEF SOW Template based on: <ul> <li>The overall guidance in the <strong><a href="/cop/iam/DAU%20Sponsored%20Documents/Defense%20Exportability%20Features%20Policy%20Implementation%20Memorandum%20and%20Guidelines%20USD%20AT%20L%204%209%2015.pdf?Web=1">April 2015 A&S/IC DEF “Policy Implementation Memorandum and Guidelines</a>”</strong> memo;</li> <li>Initial guidance on “Industry Cost-Sharing” contained in paragraph 5.1.2 of this April 2015 A&S/IC memo; and,</li> <li>A follow-on <strong><a href="/cop/iam/DAU%20Sponsored%20Documents/AT%20L%20IC%20DEF%20Supplemental%20Guidance%20Cost%20Sharing%202%2023%2016.pdf?Web=1">A&S/IC memo published in February 2016</a></strong> which provides “Supplemental Guidance for Review and Submission of Industry Requests for an Adjusted DEF Cost-Sharing Portion.”</li> </ul> The DEF SOW Template, plus the A&S/IC memo requesting submission of FY 2021 DEF Nominations and both A&S/IC DEF policy memos -- which are posted on the Defense Acquisition University (DAU) International Acquisition Management Community of Practice (ICOP) website – have been hotlinked in this blog. <h3><strong>Summary</strong></h3> Students in DAU’s International Acquisition Career Path (IACP) and the Defense Security Cooperation University (DSCU) Security Cooperation Workforce Certification (SCWDP) courses often ask, <em><strong>where can I obtain additional funding for initial defense exportability efforts</strong></em>? We encourage DoD Program Management Offices (PMOs) and supporting organizations to consider applying for FY 2021 A&S/IC DEF funding via DoD Component channels if they believe their planned or ongoing acquisition efforts are eligible. Please contact DAU at <strong><a href=""></a></strong> if you have any problems downloading any of the hotlinked DAU ICOP documents or need help connecting with your DoD Component’s DEF focal point.<br> <br> Until next time, Prof K</div>string;#/training/career-development/intl-acq-mgmt/blog/Defense-Exportability-Features-(DEF)-Program-–-FY-2021-Call-for-Nominations
DAU International Acquisition & Exportability (IA&E) Education and Training Update International Acquisition & Exportability (IA&E) Education and Training Update2020-04-29T16:00:00Z Images/DAU_Locations Headquarters_20170104.jpg, Images/DAU_Locations Headquarters_20170104.jpg Images/DAU_Locations Headquarters_20170104.jpg<div class="ExternalClass8A8C81CB3A784CEEA723B4BE13222043">These are certainly challenging times for everyone, including the DoD International Acquisition Career Path (IACP) and Security Cooperation communities in government and industry. We are all doing our best to focus on IA&E mission performance while trying to remain safe and sane as most of us telework from home. We’d also like to offer heartfelt condolences to all of our colleagues at Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) who have lost a ‘shipmate’ to COVID-19 as well as anyone else in our community whose family and friends have been adversely affected.<br> <br> This blog will focus on activities that DAU’s International Acquisition faculty members are pursuing in order to keep moving forward in the current “virtual” environment while trying to anticipate whatever the “new normal” in DoD acquisition and security cooperation career education and training might be. <h3><strong>Past</strong></h3> Last fall, DAU and Defense Security Cooperation University (DSCU) signed a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) on future cooperation in acquisition-related security cooperation training. This MOA served as the catalyst for cooperative activities that are currently ongoing between DAU and DSCU. Unfortunately, the pace of the DoD Security Cooperation Workforce Certification Program (SCWDP) launch -- which was announced by DSCA in January 2020 – has been affected by COVID due to the suspension of DAU and DSCU IACP and SCWDP resident courses about a month ago.<br> <br> Prior to COVID, DAU was in the process of evaluating potential changes to the Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act (DAWIA) approach to education and training at the request of the Office of UnderSecDef (Acquisition & Sustainment) (OUSD(A&S)). One of the ideas under consideration would involve revisions to the current DAWIA career field/path structure. DAU’s current set of resident and online Foundational Learning courses are, of course, based on the current DAWIA career field/path structure. If these are modified, DAU’s Foundational Learning course offerings would also have to change (maybe a little, maybe a lot). DAU was also tasked early this year to investigate ways to reduce DAWIA-related travel costs and enhance its approach to acquisition workforce continuing education for individuals who have already achieved DAWIA career field/path Level I-III certifications. The fact is that there were a lot of new ideas being considered at DAU before COVID struck, and many of these will still require further attention in the future. <h3><strong>Present</strong></h3> COVID’s impact on DAU has been immediate and wide-ranging. Once DAU resident courses were suspended, the faculty and staff immediately began to take steps to field what is known in the education vernacular as Emergency Virtual Instructor Led Training (eVILT) versions of some of its resident career field/path certification courses. DAU’s International Acquisition faculty members are currently working on the initial eVILT version of ACQ 230 (International Acquisition Integration) for two June 2020 offerings which would have been taught in residence. Unfortunately, the June 2020 resident course offering of ACQ 380 (International Acquisition Management) will have to be cancelled since we were unable to convert this seminar-based, student-centered learning course into a viable eVILT format.<br> <br> However, challenges often provide opportunities, so DAU Int’l Acquisition faculty have re-oriented their ongoing telework activities to focus on development of two new online IA&E courses: <ul> <li>A <strong><em>DAU Faculty IA&E Course</em></strong> designed to broaden the IA&E knowledge of all DAU faculty and staff.</li> <li>Two new International Cooperative Program (ICP) <strong><em>Summary Statement of Intent (SSOI) Generalist and Specialist Courses</em></strong> designed to enhance knowledge and skills of acquisition workforce members who are asked to perform this important, but complex, ICP international agreement process step.</li> </ul> DAU Int’l Acquisition faculty members have also expanded their Mission Assistance (MA) support efforts to address requests from IACP and Security Cooperation workforce members who are teleworking. We’ve been receiving a steady stream of requests from you via e-mail and phone over the past month and are trying to respond to them within 48 hours of receipt. So far we’ve received requests for ongoing and specific IA&E MA support from SOCOM, DARPA, DTRA, DCMA, Army, Navy, and AF IA&E experts. Keep these requests coming – we’ll do our best to keep supporting you! <h3><strong>Future</strong></h3> As that famous American philosopher Yogi Berra once observed, “it’s tough to make predictions, especially about the future.” There are a few trends, however, that are likely to influence DoD IA&E education and training as we attempt to transition from ‘stay safe at home’ to ‘be safe in public’ in the coming months (and perhaps beyond). <ul> <li><strong>Fewer Resident DAU Courses</strong>: This seems inevitable – at least in the near-to-mid-term – due to the COVID-related risks that will apparently persist for 12-18 months as well as the travel expenses involved. My personal observation only (not DAU policy!) is that we should continue to teach DAU seminar courses which provide student-centered learning at the “graduate school” equivalent level in residence. Seminar courses like ACQ 380 enhance our students’ critical thinking skills and domain knowledge while providing them with ‘priceless’ IA&E community networking opportunities. ACQ 380 also provides DAU Int’l Acquisition faculty members like me – who haven’t been involved in day-to-day acquisition for some time -- the ability to learn about ‘circa 2020’ IA&E best practices from rather than rely solely on our ‘back in the day’ experience (however valuable that might be).</li> <li><strong>More VILT DAU Courses</strong>: DAU is developing plans to transition many courses from eVILT – which is currently being implemented as a matter of necessity – to permanent VILT courses. Perspectives on the successes and challenges of DAU’s initial eVILT course offerings – from both a faculty and student perspective – are still being collected and evaluated. Based on anecdotal reports, there are definitely pros and cons with eVILT. It’s also clear from a DAU faculty perspective – and the experience of school teachers and university professors around the country -- that transitioning a resident course to eVILT (let alone ‘steady state’ VILT) is an intellectual, cultural, and technological challenge for both faculty and students. As noted above, ACQ 230 will be crossing the Rubicon into this brave new eVILT (and perhaps VILT) world shortly. We’ll let you know how this works out in a future blog.</li> <li><strong>Enhanced DAU Online Courses</strong>: DAU is currently placing a lot of emphasis on upgrading both the quality and quantity of its online courses. From both a faculty development and student experience perspective, online courses require careful consideration of the web-based ‘look and feel’ of the course as well as the overall quality and currency of its learning content. DAU is attempting to address both of these areas – technology and content – across the breadth and depth of its online learning courses and continuous learning modules. The old adage about Soviet military forces – quantity has a quality all its own – comes to mind. There are hundreds of current or future online DAU learning assets that deserve DAU’s attention but only enough time, talent and treasure ‘bandwidth’ to tackle some of them in the near term. Which online learning assets should be our highest priority? What new technology should we use? Will we be able to adequately update the courses we have – and plan to deploy – in the face of rapidly evolving DoD acquisition policy and potential acquisition workforce career field/path changes? No easy answers to these questions … but we have to press on regardless since doing nothing is not an acceptable alternative.</li> </ul> <h3><strong>Summary</strong></h3> The shock our society has sustained from COVID has disrupted just about everything, including giving many of us who are now teleworking an unanticipated break from the daily grind of the “old normal’s” meetings and actions. Many of us have more time for thought and reflection. However, at least for some of us, this is a bit like being the dog who’s been chasing a fire truck for years and has finally caught it. I don’t know about all of you, but the idea of living in the “virtual world” seemed more enjoyable when it wasn’t a mandatory option every day.<br> <br> We know that change is inevitable at DAU, and it’s clear that in the coming months we’ll be transitioning to some sort of “new normal." It’s hard to imagine not being affected by all of what we’re experiencing now in some way, shape, or form in the future. In the event you have time for reflection on how the DAU Int’l Acquisition Center might be able to help you – in the present or the future -- please take a moment share any ideas you may have with us at <a href=""></a>.<br> <br> Until next time, Prof K</div>string;#/training/career-development/intl-acq-mgmt/blog/DAU-International-Acquisition-and-Exportability-(IAandE)-Education-and-Training-Update
New DoDI 5200.48 on CUI -- Impact on Int'l Acquisition DoDI 5200.48 on CUI -- Impact on Int'l Acquisition2020-03-10T16:00:00Z Interest Areas/DAU_Cybersecurity DoD Seal_20170104.jpg, Interest Areas/DAU_Cybersecurity DoD Seal_20170104.jpg Interest Areas/DAU_Cybersecurity DoD Seal_20170104.jpg<div class="ExternalClass3B0C28196A804242AA4A36244AAC731C">Bill Kobren -- our faculty friend and colleague in the Life-Cycle Logistics area -- authored a DAU blog last week announcing the fact UnderSecDef (Intelligence & Security) issued a new <a href="">DoD Instruction 5200.48, Controlled Unclassified Information (CUI)</a> on March 6, 2020.<br> <br> While Bill addressed his blog to Defense Acquisition Workforce members in general -- and life cycle logisticians and product support managers in particular -- I would like to highlight several key aspects that will affect the DoD International Acquisition and Security Cooperation communities, our allies and friends, and U.S. and foreign industry. This long-awaited (and lengthy) DoDI establishes comprehensive policy, assigns responsibilities, and prescribes procedures for CUI throughout the DoD. <h3>Key Aspects</h3> The largest immediate impact will be how we (and DoD contractors) mark DoD CUI documents from this point onward. Newly created CUI documents will have to be marked using the new CUI markings specified in DoDI 5200.48. Most legacy CUI documents won't need re-marked or redacted while under DoD control. However -- and this is a <b><i>big however</i></b> -- any such legacy documents or new derivative documents will have to be marked with the new CUI markings if the information still "qualifies as CUI and the document is being shared outside DoD" (para 3.2.a.). Table 1 contains a few "DoD CUI Registry Category Examples" and Table 2 contains "Dissemination Control and Distribution Statement Markings" that replace all of the legacy "Distribution Statement" markings for Critical Technical Information in <a href="">DoDI 5230.24</a> except for export control markings (para 4.3.b.) The entire set of Federal and DoD CUI Registry Categories can be accessed via<a href=""> Intelink</a> if you have a valid CAC card. Fair warning -- there are <strong>a lot</strong> of categories!<br> <br> The gory details of what DoD personnel will have to accomplish with respect to marking and protecting both CUI hard copy and digital CUI resident on Information Technology (IT) systems is contained in Section 3 (Programmatics), pages 12-26. Requirements for Dissemination, Decontrolling, and Destruction of CUI are contained in Section 4, pages, 27 -30. Industry responsibilities are covered in Section 5, Application of DoD Industry, pages 30-32, and Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) Sections 252.204-7008 and 252.204-7012 through contractual arrangements. <h3>International Acquisition & Exportability (IA&E) Impacts</h3> DoD IA&E workforce members have long been aware of CUI since there is so much of it in our programs, and since DoD's international transactions with allied and friendly nation government and industry personnel have always required careful marking and handling of U.S. and foreign CUI. All of our International Cooperative Program (ICP) international agreements contain a CUI Article/Section, and most of them require development of a Program/Project Security Instruction (PSI) based on guidance from the NATO-sponsored Multinational Industrial Security Working Group (MISWG) that initially issued recommendations regarding Classified Military Information (CMI) and CUI protection from the 1990s onward. The DoD Security Cooperation (SC) community has also emphasized the need for CMI and CUI protection in the Security Assistance Management Manual (SAMM) for Foreign Military Sales (FMS) and other types of SC transactions.<br> <br> For many years, the <a href="">Distribution Statements in DoDI 5230.24</a> for DoD acquisition program/technical info -- when coupled with DoD Component International Program Organization (IPO) guidance on how to obtain authorization for foreign disclosure of CUI (when justified) and applying adaptations of "REL TO" markings adopted by DoD and many of its allies/friends post 9/11 -- have gotten the job done. However, with the advent of DoDI 5200.48, DoD CUI policies and procedures have changed significantly and we'll all have to begin<em><strong> </strong></em>learning and following the<em><strong> "new rules."</strong></em><br> <br> DoD documents marked "FOUO" (or variations thereof) have been a harder problem to solve in the past, primarily because the FOUO marking was applied so broadly and vaguely, and because it was often a significant challenge to figure out who the Office of Primary Responsibility (OPR) actually was for such documents. Blended documents with CUI from multiple DoD organizations posed an even greater challenge, even when senior DoD officials supported foreign release. In many situations, the process for releasing CMI documents proved to be much easier than releasing CUI since classified documents have always been subject to standardized classification, OPR, and declassification marking requirements. The new DoDI 5200.48 -- once the DoD workforce learns how to categorize DoD CUI documents and mark them properly -- <em><strong>should </strong></em>help quite a bit in this area. <h3>Summary</h3> <p>I predict that U.S. Government's and DoD's transition from the old way of marking and handing CUI -- a combination of "FOUO, SBU, US Only" and other similar markings plus DoDI 5230.24 Distribution Statements -- to a much more complex and robust CUI marking and handling regime will be lengthy and difficult. However as one of my old security mentors used to say about CUI, "<em><strong>we should <strong>m</strong>ark it clearly so everyone understands what it is, and why it should be protected, or be prepared to lose it.</strong></em>" The new DoDI 5200.48 provides everyone in government and industry the opportunity to achieve this outcome.<br> <br> Until next time, Prof K</p></div>string;#/training/career-development/intl-acq-mgmt/blog/New-DoDI-5200-48-on-CUI-Impact-on-Intl-Acquisition
What I Learned at DAU this Month I Learned at DAU this Month2020-02-27T17:00:00Z Images/DAU_DAU Logo_20170104.jpg, Images/DAU_DAU Logo_20170104.jpg Images/DAU_DAU Logo_20170104.jpg<div class="ExternalClass6ABF2DDB17B34C728C9270A974DFCC95">We conducted a DAU International Acquisition & Exportability (IA&E) Workshop last week at DAU South and an ACQ 380 International Acquisition Management Course at DAU Mid-Atlantic this week that highlighted a few key areas I’d like to share with you. <h3><strong>People</strong></h3> Our workshop and course participants from various DoD acquisition organizations were all practicing IA&E experts who knew their craft yet were still striving to improve. I was truly impressed with their pragmatic enthusiasm, curiosity, and willingness to use critical thinking skills to challenge our ideas and assertions by providing “new evidence” for all to consider. Upon reflection, it was clear that DAU faculty members gained several valuable insights about the current IA&E environment and ongoing activities, while workshop and course participants benefited from the breadth and depth of the faculty’s IA&E domain knowledge and experience.<br> <br> Why is this important? The number of IA&E experts in the DOD acquisition and security cooperation workforce is quite small. Like a lot of the specialized communities within DOD acquisition, they are often overworked and under appreciated by their “generalist” colleagues until crunch time strikes and the program really needs to accomplish something important in the international acquisition area.<br> <br> Fortunately, our current generation of DoD IA&E experts really know their stuff, and are ready and willing to help achieve optimal international acquisition outcomes for the full spectrum of DoD Component programs or activities throughout the acquisition life-cycle. Make sure to consult them early on and carefully consider the advice they offer. As a DAU faculty member, I have moved from “player” to “coach.” Based on my years of experience as a “player” myself, however, I can assure you that our current group of DOD IA&E experts are world class performers. <h3><strong>Policies and Procedures</strong></h3> With the advent of the <a href="">Adaptive Acquisition Framework (AAF)</a> a lot of areas in acquisition policy are changing very rapidly. The pace of legal, regulatory, and policy changes outside the acquisition community in the Joint Capability Integration and Development System (JCIDS) and Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Execution System (PPBES) has generally been slower. Most DoD, interagency, and allied/friendly nation laws, regulations, and policies regarding IA&E matters haven’t evolved that much either.<br> <br> There are three changes in the DoD IA&E area, however, that we discussed extensively during both the workshop and course. One involves several U.S. Government (USG) and DoD policy and procedural efforts to accelerate DoD Security Cooperation and Foreign Military Sales (FMS) transactions. These appear to be having a positive effect which could be amplified with the advent of the <a href="/training/career-development/intl-acq-mgmt/blog/DoD-Security-Cooperation-Workforce-Certification-Program-Established">Security Cooperation Workforce Development Program</a> which just began initial implementation in January 2020. The second is a USG Conventional Arms Transfer (CAT) Policy initiative on Defense Exportability (DE) which has already resulted in a new DoD Joint Requirements Oversight Committee’s policy (<a href="/training/career-development/intl-acq-mgmt/blog/Big-News-in-Defense-Exportability">JROCM 025-19</a>) regarding definition of DE requirements in JCIDS capabilities documentation. USG CAT Policy-related changes in the revised set of DoD 5000 series policy documents are also pending which will likely increase the emphasis on DE in current and future DoD acquisition programs pursued through the AAF. The third area is increased USG CAT Policy emphasis on DoD support to U.S. industry for Non-Program of Record (NPOR) defense sales and transfers in the global defense marketplace. We anticipate additional details regarding potential DoD NPOR support to U.S. industry will be published in the near future. <h3><strong>Critical Thinking and Domain Knowledge</strong></h3> Since the pace of change is so rapid, DoD’s international acquisition and security cooperation workforce members will have to rely on their critical thinking skills and IA&E domain knowledge to assess, synthesize, and implement the aforementioned policies & procedures in the coming months. We will do our best at DAU to support them through online resources – especially our <a href="/cop/iam/Pages/Default.aspx">International Acquisition Management Community of Practice (ICOP)</a> – as well as <a href="">WSM-021 IA&E Workshops</a> and other future targeted training initiatives.<br> <br> Until next time, Prof K</div>string;#/training/career-development/intl-acq-mgmt/blog/What-I-Learned-at-DAU-this-Month