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IA&E Applied Critical Thinking Module – Part IIIA Applied Critical Thinking Module – Part IIIA2021-04-09T16:00:00Z Interest Areas/DAU_International Acquisition UN_20170104.jpg, Interest Areas/DAU_International Acquisition UN_20170104.jpg Interest Areas/DAU_International Acquisition UN_20170104.jpg<div class="ExternalClass65E9522EE36A46E6B1AD073487DC6AA3">In mid-January 2021, Defense Acquisition University (DAU) began publication of a new International Acquisition and Exportability (IA&E) Critical Thinking video series.<br> <br> <strong>Part I</strong> provides an <a href=""><strong>Introduction to Critical Thinking</strong></a> concepts and principles that are directly relevant to DoD Acquisition and Security Cooperation workforce personnel performing their daily IA&E work.<br> <br> <strong>Part II</strong> focuses on <a href=""><strong>IA&E Analysis</strong></a> by exploring specific Critical Thinking methodologies that can be used to identify, prioritize, and analyze program-level IA&E opportunities and challenges across the DoD acquisition life-cycle.<br> <br> <strong>Part IIIA</strong> concentrates on how to use <strong><a href="">DAU’s Stakeholder Analysis and Engagement Decision Framework (DF)</a></strong> to conduct Deep Thinking analysis of important, complex IA&E challenges and opportunities.<br> <br> DoD IA&E transactions typically involve a wide range of U.S. Government, DoD, allied/friendly nation, and U.S. and foreign industry stakeholders. The Stakeholder Analysis and Engagement DF process provides a structured approach to identify your program’s IA&E stakeholders, prioritize them, define their interests, and influence their perspectives and positions on your desired international acquisition outcomes.<br> <br> <strong>Step 1</strong> focuses on the systematic identification of <strong><em>all potential stakeholders</em></strong> who may be interested in your program’s IA&E efforts, might have an interest in the options you are considering, the decisions you plan to make, and how you plan to implement them.<br> <br> <strong>Step 2</strong> uses a ‘Quad’ matrix – based on your heuristic evaluation of each stakeholder’s relative importance and influence – to help identify the set of <em><strong>key</strong> <strong>stakeholders</strong></em><strong> </strong>interested in your program’s IA&E initiatives.<br> <br> <strong>Step 3</strong> involves a scalable data capture effort to obtain and document each <em><strong>key stakeholders interests, expectations, and requirement</strong></em><strong>s</strong> to ensure their perspectives, and organizational positions, are considered in your program’s IA&E planning, decision-making, and implementation.<br> <br> <strong>Step 4</strong> employs a ‘Six Box’ matrix to categorize each <em><strong>key stakeholder’s overall perspective</strong></em> vis-à-vis your program’s IA&E initiatives based on your Step 1 through 4 results, informed by any additional knowledge your DoD Component acquisition senior leaders are willing to share regarding the views of key USG, DoD, international, or industry stakeholders they know and trust.<br> <br> <strong>Step 5</strong> integrates the overall Decision Framework results, in the form of a <em><strong>key stakeholder engagement plan</strong></em>, to be implemented by the Program Management Office and Program Executive Officer organization (or equivalents) based on the principle, “<em><strong>knowledge is useful, but informed action is essential</strong></em>.”<br> <br> This new <strong>IA&E Critical Thinking</strong> series provides Program Management Offices, Integrated Product Teams, and S&T community personnel with analytical “tools” specifically designed to assist them in identifying and pursuing mutually beneficial international acquisition initiatives with allied and friendly nations. We are always interested in any feedback or advice you are willing to share! Contact us via <a href=""></a> with any suggestions you may have on how to use or improve this IA&E Critical Thinking “tool set” to achieve better DoD international acquisition outcomes.<br> <br> Until next time, Prof K</div>string;#/training/career-development/intl-acq-mgmt/blog/IAandE-Applied-Critical-Thinking-–-Part-IIIA
Applied Critical Thinking: Part II -- IA&E Analysis Critical Thinking: Part II -- IA&E Analysis2021-03-29T16:00:00Z Interest Areas/DAU_International Acquisition UN_20170104.jpg, Interest Areas/DAU_International Acquisition UN_20170104.jpg Interest Areas/DAU_International Acquisition UN_20170104.jpg<div class="ExternalClassBE6263D7087048449707021CCD99E48B">In mid-January 2021, Defense Acquisition University (DAU) began publication of a new International Acquisition and Exportability (IA&E) video series. <strong>Part I</strong> -- <a href=""><strong>Introduction to Critical Thinking</strong></a>, provided an overview of Critical Thinking concepts and principles – drawn from various academic and business sources – that are directly relevant to DoD Acquisition and Security Cooperation workforce personnel performing their daily IA&E work.<br> <br> Last week, DAU published <strong>Part II</strong> of this series on <a href=""><strong>IA&E Analysis</strong></a>. It explores specific Critical Thinking methodologies that can be used to identify, prioritize, and analyze IA&E opportunities and challenges that arise across the DoD acquisition life-cycle at the program or project level.<br> <br> DAU’s recommended approach to IA&E Analysis is based on the following combination of Critical Thinking concepts and methodologies: <ul> <li>Employing <strong>System 1</strong> (Intuitive) and <strong>System 2</strong> (Rational) types of thinking, as appropriate, to improve overall IA&E decision outcomes based on Daniel Kahneman’s book <strong><em>Thinking Fast and Slow</em></strong>.</li> <li>Developing <strong>Surface and Deep Thinking</strong> IA&E domain knowledge and skills as outlined in Daniel Willingham’s article “<em><strong>Critical Thinking – Why is it so Hard to Teach?</strong></em>”</li> <li>Using the <strong>Observe – Orient – Decide – Act (OODA) Loop</strong> decision analysis framework developed by Colonel John Boyd, USAF to grapple with complex IA&E decision making in confusing or chaotic situations.</li> <li>Adopting a <strong>Triaging Methodology</strong> – routinely used in medicine and business – to identify and prioritize IA&E challenges and opportunities that arise in a dynamic and constantly changing environment.</li> <li>Forming DoD multi-disciplinary teams, when needed, to perform <strong>System 2, Deep Thinking</strong> <strong>Analysis</strong> to address the most important, complex current and future IA&E issues.</li> </ul> <strong>Part II</strong> also includes several real-world examples of how DoD acquisition and security cooperation experts have used their Critical Thinking knowledge and skills since the 1960s to conceive, formulate, establish, and implement key DoD international acquisition initiatives including: NATO SeaSparrow; F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Wideband Global SATCOM; Patriot Air Defense System; AH-64 Apache Helicopter; P-8A Maritime Patrol Aircraft, and others.<br> <br> We hope <strong>Part I</strong> and <strong>Part II</strong> of this new <strong>IA&E Critical Thinking</strong> series will help Program Management Offices, Integrated Product Teams, and S&T community personnel identify and pursue international acquisition initiatives that will benefit DoD and its allies and friends around the globe in the years ahead.<br> <br> Until next time, Prof K</div>string;#/training/career-development/intl-acq-mgmt/blog/Applied-Critical-Thinking---Part-II----IAandE-Analysis
DoD IA&E – Risk and Opportunity Management IA&E – Risk and Opportunity Management2021-02-26T17:00:00Z Interest Areas/DAU_International Acquisition UN_20170104.jpg, Interest Areas/DAU_International Acquisition UN_20170104.jpg Interest Areas/DAU_International Acquisition UN_20170104.jpg<div class="ExternalClassA2E388AE2EE2492E83C23E8325A31107">Department of Defense (DoD) International Acquisition and Exportability (IA&E) activities routinely present the DoD acquisition workforce with a wide array of “risk versus opportunity” choices. Approximately 90% of DoD acquisition programs and projects encounter IA&E risks and opportunities -- to some greater or lesser degree -- at some point during their life-cycle.<br> <br> The <strong><a href="/tools/t/DoD-Risk,-Issue,-and-Opportunity-Management-Guide-for-Defense-Acquisition-Programs">DoD Risk, Issue, and Opportunity Management Guide for Defense Acquisition Programs</a></strong> issued in January 2017 specifically mentions the importance of planning for international acquisition opportunities and addressing exportability considerations.<br> <br> Here are <strong>five IA&E risk versus opportunity areas</strong> that Program Management Offices (PMOs), Integrated Product Teams (IPTs), and the DoD Science and Technology (S&T) community should consider addressing in every program, project or S&T activity with current or potential international involvement: <h2><strong>IA&E Planning</strong></h2> <strong>Risk: </strong>Failure to plan IA&E activities -- i.e., ‘hope is not a plan’ -- leads to acquisition programs and projects that are ‘buffeted by the winds and seas’ rather than ‘steering towards a line of bearing’ that will increase the probability of optimal international acquisition outcomes.<br> <br> <strong>Opportunity</strong>: Conducting tailored IA&E Assessment and, if applicable, developing an International Considerations section in the program's Acquisition Strategy (or equivalent) – will help determine what the program’s IA&E line of bearing should be. <h3><strong>DAU Online Resources</strong>:</h3> <ul> <li><strong><a href="/tools/t/International-Acquisition-and-Exportability-(IAandE)-Assessment-Job-Support-Tool-(JST)">IA&E Assessment Job Support Tool (JST)</a></strong> – Contains suggestions, plus a template, on how to conduct and document an IA&E Assessment that can be tailored to address your prospective program’s circumstances.</li> <li><strong><a href="/tools/t/Acquisition-Strategy---International-Considerations-Job-Support-Tool-(JST)">Acquisition Strategy -- International Considerations JST</a></strong> – Contains suggestions, plus a template, on how to develop and complete an “International Considerations” section for your program’s Acquisition Strategy (or equivalent).</li> </ul> <h2><strong>Int’l Cooperative Programs (ICPs)</strong></h2> <strong>Risk: </strong>ICPs are often the most risky of the international acquisition mechanism choices available in the IA&E toolbox from a “risk versus reward” perspective. However, they also have the greatest 'upside' with respect to long term political military, operational, economic, and industrial benefits if they are properly structured and appropriately managed. DoD has had several major successes, but also a few significant failures, in the ICP area since 1990.<br> <br> <strong>Opportunity</strong>: Of the many <strong><a href="/cop/iam/DAU%20Sponsored%20Documents/DAU%20Intl%20Acq%20Program%20Examples%20-%20FK%202-27-21.pptx?Web=1">successful ICP examples</a></strong>, probably the most well-known is JSF, but there are many other DoD ICPs that are providing U.S. and allied/friendly nations with the technology and capabilities they need to train and fight together on an affordable basis. <h3><strong>DAU Online Resources</strong>:</h3> <ul> <li><strong><a href="">CSIS Paper on “Designing and Managing Successful International Joint Development Programs”</a></strong> – A comprehensive study of six U.S. and European ICPs – including the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter -- published in January 2017.</li> <li><strong><a href="/training/career-development/intl-acq-mgmt/blog/Making-the-Case-for-International-Cooperative-Programs">Making the Case for International Cooperative Programs Blog</a></strong> – This blog addresses a question many DoD IA&E community members and U.S. industry have been asking for the past several years, “when (and how) will DoD take action to establish a new generation of ICPs?”</li> <li><strong><a href="/tools/t/International-Cooperative-Programs-(ICPs)-Job-Support-Tool-(JST)">International Cooperative Program (ICP) JST</a></strong> – Contains step-by-step ICP formulation and ICP international agreement process navigation best practice guidance.</li> <li><strong><a href="/tools/t/International-Business-Planning-Job-Support-Tool-(JST)">International Business Planning (IBP) JST</a></strong> -- Contains practical ideas and suggestions on how to develop and implement a dynamic International Business Plan to address your maturing (or mature) program’s international business opportunities and challenges – past, present, and future.</li> </ul> <h2><strong>Defense Sales and Transfers</strong></h2> <strong>Risk: </strong>Defense sales – primarily Foreign Military Sales, but also Direct Commercial Sales, Building Partner Capacity Transfers and ‘Hybrid’ arrangements – may be less risky than ICPs. However, this set of defense sales and transfers-related international acquisition mechanism choices can also pose significant “risk versus reward” challenges. PMs often make defense sales mechanism choices early in the program without fully understanding their long-term advantages and disadvantages. This can lead to suboptimal outcomes for DoD, industry, and even our allies and friends. Similar to ICPs, DoD has had many major successes -- but also some significant failures -- in the defense sales and transfers area since 1990.<br> <br> <strong>Opportunity</strong>: There are countless <strong><a href="/cop/iam/DAU%20Sponsored%20Documents/DAU%20Intl%20Acq%20Program%20Examples%20-%20FK%202-27-21.pptx?Web=1">successful Defense Sales Examples</a></strong> in this area. Probably the most well-known in recent years is JSF, but there are many other successful defense sales and transfer arrangements that are providing U.S. and allied/friendly nations with the technology and capabilities they need to train and fight together on an affordable basis. <h3><strong>DAU Online Resources</strong>:</h3> <ul> <li><strong><a href="/training/career-development/intl-acq-mgmt/blog/Accelerating-U-S--Foreign-Military-Sales-(FMS)-–-Best-Practices---">Accelerating U.S. Foreign Military Sales (FMS) – Best Practices Blog</a></strong> – A useful intro to this subject for both IA&E specialists and acquisition/security cooperation generalists.</li> <li><strong><a href="/training/career-development/intl-acq-mgmt/blog/FMS-Systems-Acquisition-“Step-0”-–-Defining-What-the-Customer-Wants">FMS Systems Acquisition “Step 0” Blog</a></strong> – Defining What the Customer Wants (Blog Link) – Improving “Step 0” is a potential “high payoff” area for acquisition and security cooperation professionals.</li> <li><a href="/training/career-development/intl-acq-mgmt/blog/FMS-Systems-Acquisition-“Step-1”-–-Documenting-what-the-Customer-Wants"><strong>FMS Systems Acquisition “Step 1” – Documenting what the Customer Wants Blog</strong></a> – This follow-on to the Step 0 blog explores the importance of the next logical step in the FMS process.</li> <li><strong><a href="/tools/t/Foreign-Military-Sales-(FMS)-Systems-Acquisition-Job-Support-Tool-(JST)-">FMS Systems Acquisition JST</a></strong> -- Contains step-by-step FMS program formulation and FMS Letter of Request (LOR) to Letter of Offer and Acceptance (LOA) process navigation best practice guidance.</li> </ul> <h2><strong><u>Defense Exportability (including TSFD)</u></strong></h2> <strong>Risk: </strong><u>All</u> IA&E international mechanism transactions require both USG/DoD Tech Security and Foreign Disclosure (TSFD) decisions and, in many situations, State and/or Commerce export control approvals prior to their establishment and implementation. The banks of the Potomac are (metaphorically) littered with the bones of PM, IPT, and S&T community members and U.S. industry personnel who were unaware of – or otherwise failed to comply with – the USG/DoD regulations and policies this area. Their failures adversely affected their program and – in some cases – U.S. defense and national security interests.<br> <br> <strong>Opportunity</strong>: Since 2010, there has been a lot of progress in the Defense Exportability Integration (DEI) area. Ms. Lord, our USD(A&S) until recently, made this her main IA&E priority. Updated defense exportability guidance is contained in AAF directives and instructions. Programs that have addressed and handled DEI effectively up front have reaped big dividends through ICPs and/or defense sales & transfer transactions that passed through the USG/DoD TSFD and export control gauntlet in a timely manner, mostly unscathed. Those that haven’t have paid a heavy price in time and effort attempting to ‘re-engineer’ their program to pass muster with respect to USG/DoD TSFD and export control policy compliance. Some have even failed to make it through these processes at all, resulting in the demise of their international acquisition initiatives. <h3><strong>DAU Online Resources</strong>:</h3> <ul> <li><strong><a href="/training/career-development/intl-acq-mgmt/blog/USD(AandS)-Defense-Exportability-Planning-Memo">USD(Acquisition and Sustainment) Defense Exportability Planning Memo Blog</a></strong> -- This October 2018 blog summarized the USD(A&S) September 2018 FOUO memo in this area and provides a historical summary (with hotlinks) on key sources of DoD defense exportability law and policy.</li> <li><strong><a href="/training/career-development/intl-acq-mgmt/blog/Defense-Exportability-in-DoD-Agile-Acquisition-Programs">Defense Exportability in DoD Agile Acquisition Programs Blog</a></strong> – This July 2019 blog advocates consideration/appropriate incorporation of defense exportability in agile acquisition programs.</li> <li><strong><a href="/tools/t/DEI-JST">Defense Exportability Integration JST</a></strong> – Contains detailed descriptions of the USG/DoD TSFD process “pipes” that must be navigated, USG export control policies and practices, and step-by-step suggestions on how to plan and implement what most DoD acquisition and security cooperation specialists and generalist believe is the most challenging aspect of IA&E, defense exportability.</li> </ul> <h2><strong>International Contracting</strong></h2> <strong>Risk: </strong>Almost every significant DoD contract or other form of contractual arrangement has international aspects, even contracts awarded for ‘domestic’ programs with no foreign partner or customer nations involved. Failure to include and oversee the performance of FAR/DFARS (or equivalent) provisions in the export control, program protection, and cybersecurity areas in prime and sub-contracts can cause major problems during implementation when foreign sources are involved.<br> <br> <strong>Opportunity</strong>: The ability to use foreign sources can help PMs expand and maintain competition – consistent with the Competition in Contracting Act and the FAR/DFARS -- at the prime, subcontractor, and supplier levels. DoD Reciprocal Defense Procurement and Security of Supply international agreements provide mechanisms that can be used to overcome international contracting barriers and reduce the impact of U.S. and foreign nation customs duties and taxes. <h3><strong>DAU Online Resources</strong>:</h3> <ul> <li><strong><a href="/cop/iam/Pages/Topics/International%20Contracting.aspx">DAU International Community of Practice (ICOP) Website</a></strong> – The DAU ICOP contains an International Contracting webpage listing several International Contracting online resources that PMs, IPTs, and S&T community members may find useful.</li> <li><strong><a href="">OUSD/A&S Defense Pricing and Contracting Website</a></strong> – The A&S/DPC website contains an International Contracting section which provides online copies of all US DoD Reciprocal Defense Procurement Memoranda of Understanding and information on specific U.S. legal restrictions regarding purchases from non-U.S. sources, including the Berry Amendment and Specialty Metals restrictions.</li> </ul> <h2><strong>Summary</strong></h2> We hope this summary of IA&E risk and opportunity management areas – and associated resources – will help PMOs, IPTs, and S&T community members minimize risks and maximize international acquisition opportunities that could benefit their programs and projects. Consider contacting your DoD Component International Programs Organization (IPO) or DAU/DSMC-International at <a href=""></a> to obtain additional knowledge or mission assistance in these areas.<br> <br> Until next time, Prof K</div>string;#/training/career-development/intl-acq-mgmt/blog/DoD-IAandE-–-Risk-and-Opportunity-Management
New DAU IA&E Applied Critical Thinking Module -- Part I DAU IA&E Applied Critical Thinking Module -- Part I2021-01-15T12:00:00Z Images/DAU_Locations DSMC_20160104.jpg, Images/DAU_Locations DSMC_20160104.jpg Images/DAU_Locations DSMC_20160104.jpg<div class="ExternalClass676F0B2E62F94B8BA60876A8C8AF07DE">Happy New Year to All!<br> <br> We recently published a new DAU learning asset, "<strong><a href="">International Acquisition & Exportability (IA&E) Applied Critical Thinking Module -- Part I</a></strong>" which provides an introduction on this topic developed for the DoD acquisition workforce and supporting industry, with specific focus on International Acquisition Career Path (IACP) and Security Cooperation Workforce (SCWF) members.<br> <br> In recent years government and industry leaders have emphasized the importance of learning more about -- and more importantly, using -- a range of thinking approaches in their daily efforts. The DAU videos "<strong><a href="">Thinking about Thinking</a></strong>" and "<strong><a href="">Think Differently: Design Thinking</a></strong>" provide insights into various approaches that have potential applicability to DoD acquisition activities.<br> <br> Our "<strong><a href="">International Acquisition & Exportability (IA&E) Applied Critical Thinking Module -- Part I</a></strong>" video begins by exploring broad Critical Thinking principles, then illustrates how they can be adapted and used solve challenging and complex IA&E problems. Part II and Part III of this Module are currently being developed and will be published on the website when they are completed.<br> <br> Until next time, Prof K<br> <br> <br> <br> <br> <br></div>string;#/training/career-development/intl-acq-mgmt/blog/New-DAU-IAandE-Applied-Critical-Thinking-Module----Part-I

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